Iste introduction in interlingua
5–9 April 2014
In this directory I publish a copy of this bilingual grammar (English and Interlingua) of Interlingua. The copy is identical except that I corrected a lot of errors that resulted from OCR’ing PDFs (OCR = Optical Character Recognition).
To see which changes I made, there is this Word file that was created by having Word 2007 compare my version with the original by Allan Kiviaho.
There were some issues that went beyond the minor errors that naturally result from any OCR process. Page and section numbers mentioned below refer (unless otherwise specified) to this PDF of the original grammar, written in English by Alexander Gode and Hugh E. Blair.
At the end of §47 on page 26 is this dialog:
“Vos crede illo? - Claro!
'You believe that?' - 'Obviously?
Exacto, illo es mi opinion! 'Exactly, that's my opinion.'”
I changed the question mark (‘?’) after “Obviously” into an exclamation mark (‘!’), as that seems to make more sense in the context, also considering the corresponding Interlingua dialog.
There is a mistake on page 41 in §86: the Interlingua word “venira” (stressed on the last syllable) is a future tense form. So either it should have been ‘veniva’ (past tense), or the English translation of the example sentence should have been ‘will come’ instead of “came”.
Apparently this is not an OCR error, but a misprint, because this PDF, which seems to be a direct scan of the 1971 second edition of the paper book, also has the error.
On page 91 in §152, about the suffix
“tolerar 'to tolera > tolerantia 'tolerance';”
This is clearly a mistake, so I
changed it to:
'to tolerate' > tolerantia 'tolerance';.
On page 92 in §152, about the suffix “‑ative”, the Interlingua word “demonstrar” is translated to English as “to dentrate”, which is not the right translation and not even an English word at all.
Clearly what was meant is ‘to demonstrate’. The same error is also here, and in the 1971 edition, so probably not due to OCR. I corrected it in my version.
On page 98/99 in §157, about the prefix “contra‑”, the word “counternmnifesto” is clearly a misprint. So I changed it to the correct ‘countermanifesto’.
On page 116 in Appendix 1 (chapter 6.1) there is a misprint in the original. The printed and OCR’d word “spontaneonsly” should of course be ‘spontaneously’. Because of the trivial nature of the error, I corrected it in my version, although it is not an OCR error and correcting OCR errors was the original purpose of my effort.
In a note under the bilingual grammar, his surname is incorrectly written as Jeszensky. The source of this error is probably this page of the UMI website, where it may be due to confusion with the Slovak variant of the same name, Jesenský.
In my version of the bilingual grammar I left this error uncorrected, because it is not an error due to OCR. In several other places in the same web page, the name IS correctly spelled Jeszenszky.
(23 September 2018: on second thought, I did correct the name.)
Online from today: a new version of the bilingual Interlingua Grammatica by Gode&Blair / Selahattin Kayalar. The contents are the same as in the previous version, but the HTML and CSS are new. As a result, the synchronisation of the sections in the English original (to the left) and the Interlingua translation (to the right) is better, even now that a more attractive typography with proportional fonts is used.
The new version is not complete yet, but will be gradually completed. Where content is missing, there are links (many of which actually work) to the old content. For example, the meanwhile famous remarks about composite and non-composite past verb forms, in section 106 (also accessible through the expandable shortcut rudhar.com/iagr#P106) temporarily refers to section 106 of the version that was originally from Finland.
The new version of the bilingual grammar, which was announced above, is now finished. The alphabetic index deserves special mention. All the references to sections are now hyperlinks, i.e. clickable links that take the reader to the corresponding spots in the text of the grammar.
Some links are internal to the index. E.g. where it says “vide COMPOSITION” in the index, the word “COMPOSITION” (compounding) is clickable and leads to a list of links to descriptions of various methods of creating words from parts. Other examples of such internal links are derivation, affixos, terminationes, genere natural (natural gender), pronomines personal (personal pronouns), and adjectivos demonstrative.
Most of the links in the index lead to sections (§§) in the grammar. However, some sections are very long and have a lot of subsections about affixes, viz. prefixes e suffixes. This concerns the numbers 138, 139, 152, 157, 158, and 161. If the links of the affixes in the index referred to a whole section, the reader would have to start searching from that point onward, in order to reach the actual affix of interest. That isn’t convenient. Therefore the links have been made more detailed, so they go directly to the description of the affix in question.
For example the index entry “trans-” doesn’t refer to sections 157 and 158 in general, but to subsection “trans-” of §157, and to subsection “dia-” of §158, in which “trans-” is mentioned as an non-technical alternative. (“Trans-” is of Latin origin, whereas “dia-” is Greek.) Similarly “ultra-” jumps to the label P157-ultra (Latin, non-technical) and P158-meta (Greek, technical).
I hope this will make it easier to clearly see the structure of the Interlingua Grammar by Gode&Blair, and of the Interlingua language itself too.