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Os sons da Língua portuguesa
The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal

Phoneme summary

Quick-click to phonemes


Introduction

This is a detailed description of the pronunciation of the Portuguese language as spoken in Portugal, and how it corresponds to the written language. Many original sound samples illustrate the unique sounds of the language. More details about the sound samples and their copyright can be found here.

This description does not fully cover the pronunciation of Brazilian Portuguese, although some of the more striking differences are indicated where appropriate.

The descriptions are presented ordered in two different ways:

Vowel diagram
Sample origins
Notes
Stress rules
Accent marks
Links to glossaries


Phonemic listing

Phoneme summary

Introduction
Consonants
Non-nasalised vowels
Nasalised vowels
Non-nasalised diphthongs
Nasalised diphthongs

Quick-click to phonemes:
/p/ /b/ /f/ /v/ /m/ /w/ /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /n/ /l/ /r/ /S/ /Z/ /J/ /L/ /j/ /k/ /g/ /R\/
/i/ /e/ /E/ /1/ /3/ /a/ /u/ /o/ /O/ /i~/ /e~/ /3~/ /u~/ /o~/
/ui/ /oi/ /Oi/ /3i/ /Ei/ /ai/ /ou/ /eu/ /Eu/ /au/
/u~i~/ /o~i~/ /3~i~/ /3~u~/

Phonemic
symbol 2)
Combination / context 1) Example word English
translation
Comments
Consonants
/p/ p pai, porto /portu/ ©, porta /pOrt3/ © father, harbour, door

Bilabial, not aspirated.

For the vowel difference between porto and porta, see also Regular alternations, item Pronouns.

/b/ b Lisboa ©, Lisboa ©, vai o bem fugindo © Lisbon

Allophones: although this is a single phoneme, its exact realisation depends on context. More details in note 19, item 1.

/f/ f afago © caress Labiodental
/v/ v verde, voz ©, vai o bem fugindo © green, voice

Always labiodental, as in most other languages. Not bilabial, as in Spanish, and it doesn't coincide with /b/, as does written v in Spanish.

The sample vai o bem fugindo © shows the difference between labiodental /v/ (in "vai") and bilabial [B] (in "o bem").

Regional variant: In the north of Portugal, the letter v is pronounced in a way similar to b.

/m/ VmV amanhã tomorrow Note 3, item 3
BmV manhã morning
/w/ CuV guardar, quase, água © keep, almost, water See note 10.
VuV cauã, acauã, uacauã Names of a Brazilian bird It is hard to find examples of this intervocalic u in normal everyday words. It is found in many birds' and plants' names. The examples given here are loan-words from Tupi.
CoV mágoas ©, Coimbra, moeda hurts, Coimbra, coin It is questionable if /w/ is a separate phoneme of Portuguese at all, also because it never occurs before a vowel /u/. So maybe this /w/ is in fact simply the vowel /u/ in a position where it gets into close contact with a neighbouring vowel.
w Word Word Never in normal Portuguese words, only in rare loans.
/t/ t triste ©, tom © sad

This is always a dental [t_d], not an alveolar [t]. Not aspirated.

In Brazil, many palatalise this phoneme before high front vowels, as in triste [triSt'i] © and gente [Ze~t'i] ©. See note 23, item 3.

/d/ d Deus © God

This sound is always dental, not alveolar.

Allophones: although this is a single phoneme, its exact realisation depends on context. More details in note 19, item 2.

In Brazil, many palatalise this phoneme before high front vowels, as in grande [gr3~d'i] ©. See note 23, item 3.

/s/ BsV sem © without Allophone [s], never [S].
Note 3, item 2
VssV disse he said, she said, I said Allophone [s], never [S].
çAOU faço I do, I make Allophone [s], never [S].
cEI céu ©, céus © heaven(s) Allophone [s], never [S].
Vs fazes you do, you make Allophone [S].

I consider this sound as part of phoneme /s/, although in Portugal it nearly always sounds the same or practically the same as phoneme /S/ or /Z/.
See also z and /z/, and note 5, item 1.

This final [S] often seems voiced, and so behaves the same as the corresponding [Z] allophone of phoneme /z/.

VsC Lisboa ©, Deus deu ©, das sendas ©, Lisbon, God gave, from paths Allophone [S].

Same as above for written s in word-final position. In the first two examples, the [S] becomes [Z] due to assimilation with the voiced /b/ = [B] or /d/ = [D] that follows.

Where a final s meets an initial s, there is no assimilation: they both retain their own allophonic character (although some books deny this; and it may well be different in Brazil). This sample, das sendas ©, is a very clear example of how these sounds meet. A similar situation, with final /z/ instead of s, is uma voz sem tom ©.

About initial "es" before a consonant, see also note 20.

x máximo, próximo, trouxe, auxiliar, auxílio maximum, next, he brought / carried, help / support, help Allophone [s], not [S].
Only in some words, most of which are mentioned here.
x fixar, maxila fix / fasten / attach, jaw Spelling x leads to pronunciation /ks/ in words like these.
/z/ zV fazes you do Sounds as [z]
zF (also zC) faz, voz © she does, voice Allophone [Z]. See also s and /s/, and note 5, item 1.
In uma voz sem tom © the final z of voz and the initial s of sem do not assimilate. See also /s/ and the sample das sendas ©.
VsV casa, meus olhos © house, my eyes Sounds as [z]
BexV exame, existir exam, exist Sounds as [z]
/n/ Vn ano year  
BnV não ©, nem ©, novo /novo/ ©, nova /nOv3/ © no, nor, new (masc.), new (fem.) See also Regular alternations.
/l/ l velejar ©
Lisboa ©
to sail
Lisbon

In Portuguese, the l is always a bit velarised, i.e. the back of the tongue is raised somewhat, giving a dark colouring. It is similar to what happens in Dutch and British English in final and pre-consonantal positions, and in all positions in American and Scottish English. It's also the same as in Russian before a back vowel.
In the Portuguese of Portugal, this velarisation is also more apparent in final positions and in the vicinity of non-front vowels, as in the words fatal ©, and "mal" which sounds almost like "mau". But it also happens in initial position, even before a front vowel, as in the name of the capital city: Lisboa ©, although the degree of velarisation varies, cf. Lisboa ©. Also between central vowels like /1/, as in velejar ©.

In Brazil, some palatalise this phoneme before high front vowels, as in gole [gOLi] ©. See note 23, item 3.

/r/ VrV morrerei (2nd r) © I will die

Note 3, item 2.

See also the other r-like phoneme /R\/.
Minimal pairs are given here.

In Brazil, this /r/ often becomes uvular in VrC en VrF positions. For more details, see note 23, item 6. This never happens in Portugal. In VrV position the sound is always lingual in Brazil too.

In Portugal a short [1] or [i] is sometimes added after the final r of an infinitive ending in -ar or -er, as in this sample: quem quer ©.

In Brazil (Caipira) and Cabo-Verde on the other hand, this final r is often omitted altogether, turning written ar into á. Example: vortá (dialectal variant of voltar) ©.

In Caipira (Brazil) a retroflex r is heard, see note 23, item 10.
In Portugal, sounds occur in this position that may also be called somewhat retroflex, although it's probably something else, which I find hard to describe phonetically. I think it is similar to the r often heard in Turkish. Examples:
porto ©, corte as vagas ©, tarde demais ©, e tarde uma palavra ©. It may be due to influence of the following very dental sound. Cf. r before th in English pronunciation styles in which the r is not mute in this position. But there the change is from an already retroflex r to a more dental approximant, while here it sounds as if the dental sound that follows makes the r retroflex.

VrC porto ©, surda ©. port, mute
VrF velejar © to sail
/S/ ch chama, chego © he / she calls / flame, I arrive

In connection with phoneme /S/ see also phoneme /s/, allophone [S], and note 5, item 1.

For ch, Portuguese has the same spelling rule as French, not the same as Spanish.

x paixão, peixe, deixar, excelente passion, fish, leave / let / etc., excellent This is the most common sound for written x.
/Z/ j already

J is usually only written before a, o, or u, before e or i the letter g is used. But sometimes j is written before e or i: jeito, enjeitar.

In connection with phoneme /Z/ see also phoneme /z/, allophone [Z], and note 5, item 1.

gEI longe, refúgio © far away, refuge
/J/ nh manhã, ganhar © morning, win / gain Like Spanish ñ, and Italian and French gn (as in cognac).
/L/ lh mulher, olho, olhos © woman, I look / eye, eyes

See /O/ and /o/ for the sound difference between "I look" (/OLu/) and "eye" (/oLu/), both written olho. See also note 7.

The combination lh plays same the role in the Portuguese spelling system as ll in Spanish, and gli in Italian. However, in Portuguese (in both Portugal and Brazil), it really denotes a palatal l sound, whereas in Spanish, this sound exists merely in theory and perhaps in history, the real sounds being [j], [d'], [d'Z] or [Z] (or even [z], Argentina), depending on region and personal preference. In modern spoken Spanish, written ll phonemically coincides with written y everywhere, whereas in Portuguese, /L/ is separate from /j/.

/j/ ViV caiu, baia he fell, stall / box / bail Cf. baía (bay), which has a stressed i and three syllables instead of two.
CiV lírios lilies Perhaps this is a [j] (/lirju/), or maybe rather a short and unstressed [i].
y Yuan Yuan (Chinese currency unit) The letter y is never used in any real Portuguese word.
/k/ cAOU cão dog The /k/ phoneme is velar, and not aspirated.
quEI quente, quem quer ©. warm / hot, who In most words of this type, the written u is not sounded. There are some exceptions to this rule however, where the u sounds as /w/. This is or was sometimes indicated by writing a diaeresis (trema) over the u. Examples: tranqüilo (calm), eloqüente (eloquent), cinqüenta (fifty) now officially written tranquilo, eloquente, cinquenta.
quAO quase almost The u is sounded, as /w/
k kilowatt kilowatt Rare spelling, only in loan-words and foreign names
x fixar, maxila fix / fasten / attach, jaw Spelling x leads to pronunciation /ks/ in words like these.
/g/ gAOU afago ©, afago © caress

Allophones: although this is a single phoneme, its exact realisation depends on context. More details in note 19, item 3.

Note that u before a or o is sounded, as in the word guardar.

guEI guerra war

Same as above.

Note that the u is not sounded here, and serves only to indicate that the written g sounds as /g/, not as /Z/.

/R\/ BrV raiva © anger

Note 3, item 2.

See also the other r-like phoneme /r/.
Minimal pairs are given here.

This sound is written as a double rr, except where initial. In cases where it is not word-initial, it can be seen as starting a syllable of its own, which is sometimes indicated in spelling using a hyphen, as in mil-reis and ab-rogar. Cf. abrir and many similar words starting with abr, which have the "single" r sound.

For more details about this usually uvular, but sometimes lingual r, see note 6.

LSNrV bilro, chilrear, honra, Israel, mil-reis, ab-rogar bobbin, chirp, honour, Isreal, former monetary unit, abrogate
VrrV morrerei (1st r) © I will die

Quick-click

Phonemic
symbol 2)
Combination /
context 1)
Example word English
translation
Comments
Non-nasalised vowels (vowel diagram)
/i/ i, í Lisboa ©, baía, lírios© Índia Lisbon, bay, lilies, India The accent on the í is merely a stress marker, and doesn't influence the timbre. The stress rules are described here.
e e, exame, estação and, exam, station Occurs in the word for "and", and also initially when unstressed, before a sibilant, written s, or x pronounced /z/ or /S/. Then often very short or fully absent.
This phenomenon makes the words imigrante and emigrante, despite their opposite meanings, almost identical in pronunciation.
eV compreender, se existe © understand, if it exists

When an unstressed written e, which would normally be /1/, is followed by a vowel, it becomes /i/. Note that both sounds are phonetically close sounds (high tongue position), so there isn't really that much change: the central sound is fronted a little more.
Confer the word "the" before a vowel in British English.

/e/ e sede, emprego /e~pregu/ thirst, use/usage

Whether a stressed written e sounds as /e/ or /E/ is not usually indicated by a circumflex accent, although it could be. The accent used to be used to distinguish different words that would otherwise look identical (see the two uses and sounds of emprego). But after various more or less officially accepted spelling reforms (1947, 1971, 1987, 1994) this is now abolished. The foreign learner will have to rely on memory and those few dictionaries that indicate the difference.

Some cases are left where the written accent avoids confusion in some short words, for example quê vs. que.

The accent is also used where it is required to indicate stress. The stress rules are described here.

There is some regularity regarding masculine vs. feminine adjectives, nouns vs. verbs, and verb conjugation. Details are given in note 7. See also /O/ vs. /o/

The phonetic quality of /e/ isn't always too easy to identify. See note 8 for a discussion of this with more examples.

ê dês ©, quê, êxito, estrela © that you give (subj.), something / letter Q, success, star
/E/ e emprego /e~prEgu/ I use

Like with the ê, the accent on the é is only used where it is required to indicate stress, and to distinguish some short words: e (and, /i/) vs. é (it is, /E/).
The stress rules are described here.

The open /E/ is sometimes also found in unstressed position: arrefeçar (to lower) /3R\1fEsar/, arrefecer (to cool) /3R\1fEser/, arrefecedor, arrefecimento, aquecer (to heat) /3kEcer/, aquecedor, aquecedouro, aquecimento, aquecível, esquecer (forget) /1skEser/ [SkEser] or [iSkEser], esquecido, esquecimento, frecharia (bundle of arrows), /frES3ri3/, freguês (client), freguesia (parish) /frEg1zi3/, república /R\Epublik3/, elite /Elit1/.
See also unstressed open /O/ and /a/.

The phonetic quality of /e/ isn't always too easy to identify. See note 8 for a discussion of this with more examples.

é é, exército, pé marés © he/she/it is, army, foot, tides
e[CP][CÇT] direcção, recepção, réptil direction, reception, reptile Before an (often silent) c or p which is itself before c, ç or t, a written e always has the open quality, whether stressed or unstressed. So this too results in open vowels in unstressed position, which is otherwise rare.
/1/ e (unstressed) velejar ©, sempre ©, horizonte ©, que © to sail, always, horizon

This sounds a bit like the schwa we find in many other languages, like English, German, Dutch, Hebrew, French. But this Portuguese sound is very different, darker, which is because the tongue is much higher than for a normal schwa (where it is halfway between low and high). More on this phoneme in note 15.

/3/ a (unstressed, and not before l + consonant) Lisboa ©, catedral © caravana, Viana de Castelo, Amarante, Bragança, Amadora, Santana, laranja, maçã Lisbon

This vowel is a central vowel, as is low /a/, but /3/ is higher, more in the direction of a schwa.
Because a low /a/ more or less automatically turns into a /3/ when it is unstressed, and before /n/, /m/ and /J/, these vowels may seem to be allophones of a single phonemes. But minimal pairs exist, viz. all first person plural present tense verb forms of the a-conjugation have /3/ (example: falamos ©, whereas the same form in the past tense (perfeito) has /a/, for example: falámos ©. The acute accent marks this difference in spelling.

See also note 14, the closing influence of nasal consonants.

See also the explanation about how two merging phonemes /3/ produce a single [a].

See also note 15, and note 23, item 4.

aNMNH falamos ©, entramos ©, caravana, Viana de Castelo, Amarante, Bragança, Amadora, Santana, Campanhã (train station in Porto) they will speak, we speak, we enter
â câmara chamber / room
/a/ a (stressed, not before m, n, nh) velejar © to sail

In this sample of lágrimas the difference between the two sounds spelled "a" (/a/ and /3/) can be very clearly heard.

Before /l/ and /u/, this open and clear sound [a] turns into a much darker [A]: Examples are mau, mal, and fatal ©. See also /au/.

The open /a/ is sometimes also found in unstressed position: padaria /pad3ri3/, ganhar © /gaJar/ 24, Tavares /tavar1S/ (not */t3var1S/), Camões /kamo~i~S/ (not */k3mo~i~S/).
See also unstressed open /E/ and /O/.

á falámos ©, entrámos ©, lágrimas ©, água © we spoke, we entered, tears, water
à à, àquela, toda a vida [toDaviD3] © to the, to that, all his life
a[CP][CÇT] actor, actual, acção, aptidão actor, actual, action, aptness / ability Before an (often silent) c or p which is itself before c, ç or t, a written a always has the open quality, whether stressed or unstressed. So this too results in open vowels in unstressed position, which is otherwise rare.
alC alcácer, alcance, aldeia, Algarve, almirante, faltar, faltou castle, reach, village, Algarve, admiral, be missing, it was missing The rule also applies to algures (somewhere), but not to alhures (elsewhere, somewhere), because lh is not l + consonant, but a consonant in its own right.
/u/ u, ú caiu, útil, refúgio ©, surda ©, uma voz © he fell, useful, refuge, deaf / dull / secret, a voice The accent on the ú is merely a stress marker, and doesn't influence the timbre. The stress rules are described here.
o (unstressed) afago ©, falámos ©, fado louco ©, caress, we spoke, mad fado

See also unstressed o[CP][CÇT], where it is pronounced /O/, not /u/.

See note 16a about voiceless vowels.
/o/ o cor, boa, Lisboa ©, porto (first o) © color, good, Lisbon, harbour Regarding the close and open pronunciation of o, and the accented ó and ô, see also note 7, and /E/ vs. /e/.
ô pôr, pôr do sol, sol-pôr © put, sunset, sunset
ou ou, chegou, fado louco ©, se douram ©. or, he/she/it arrived, mad fado, they are gilded / become bright

See also /ou/

/O/ o sol, sol-pôr ©, voz ©, porta ©, roda © sun, voice, door, wheel

Like with the ô, the accent on the ó is only used where it is required to indicate stress, and to distinguish some short words. An example of both: avó (grandmother) vs. avô (grandfather).
The stress rules are described here.

The open /O/ is sometimes also found in unstressed position: você /vOse/, normal, nocturna ©, adoptar, aeroporto /3ErOportu/, autocarro, horizonte /Orizo~t1/ ©, obrigada /Obrigad3/, obrigado /Obrigadu/, procuro ©,
See also unstressed open /E/ and /a/.

ó só, fósforo, nós © alone, match, we/us
o[CP][CÇT] adoptar, óptimo, nocturna (also "noturna") © adopt, excellent, nightly Not all unstressed letters o are pronounced /u/. Before an (often silent) c or p which is itself before c, ç or t, a written o always has the open quality, whether stressed or unstressed. This results in open vowels in unstressed position, which is otherwise rare.
aF o para os heróis ©, nada os unia ©, p'ro meu jardim © for the heroes, nothing tied them

An unstressed final a (pronounced /3/), when followed by an unstressed o (pronounced /u/, often of the definite article) tends to combine into something which goes in the direction of a single sound /O/. "Para o" is therefore sometimes written as the single syllable contraction "prò". Likewise "para a" can be written "prà".

See also the merging of two a's.

Nasalised vowels (vowel diagram)
/i~/ imF fim ©, assim © end, so  
inC minto I lie  
/e~/ enC penso, mentira ©, desventura © I think, lie, misfortune  
emC tempo ©, time  
/3~/ ã manhã, rã, irmã © morning, frog, sister  
anC canta, rasgando © sing / he sings / she sings, cleaving The written combination "-a an-", with both vowels unstressed, can result in a phonetic [a~], an open nasalised a. This sound is unique in that it occurs only where these two sounds meet, it is not a separate sound that appears by itself. All other a-like nasalised sounds in the language are [3~], not [a~]. See also Merging two a's.
ânC importância importance The circumflex is used here, not the acute accent, because nasalised sounds are always of the more close variety: o~, not O~, e~, not E~, and 3~, not a~. See also Accent marks for more details.
amC campo field  
âmC câmbio exchange / change The circumflex is used here, not the acute accent, because nasalised sounds are always of the more close variety: o~, not O~, e~, not E~, and 3~, not a~. See also Accent marks for more details.
/u~/ um um dia fatal ©, commum, chumbo a/one, common, lead  
unC mundo, junto world, joined  
/o~/ omF bom, tom ©, com © good, with  
omC pombas brancas © white doves  
onC conto I tell / I count / account / story / 1000 escudos / 5 euro  
Non-nasalised diphthongs (see note 10)
/ui/ ui fui © I was / went  
/oi/ oi foi ©, foi ©, dois © he was / went  
/Oi/ ói dói ©, dói ©, para os heróis ©, it hurts, for the heroes  
/3i/ ei morrerei ©, sei  © I will die, I know  
ai pairar, caibamos, gaiteiro © to hover / float, that we fit, bagpipe player In unstressed position; otherwise it's /ai/.
enh, ex venho, tenho ©, tenho ©, sexto sentido ©, I come, I have, sixth sense See also notes 9 and 10.
/Ei/ éi hotéis, papéis hotels, papers In Lisbon, and increasingly elsewhere in the country: /3i/, just like the written ei without the acute accent.
In the de jure standard accent of Coimbra, written ei and éi are distinguised as /ei/ and /Ei/. But in the middle class accent of Lisbon, which tends to be becoming the de facto standard nowadays, both ei and éi become /3i/ and so are no longer distinguished.
See also written ai in unstressed position, which makes three ways to write the same diphthong in this style of pronunciation: ei, éi and ai.
/ai/ ai cai, raiva © it falls, rage In stressed position; otherwise it's /3i/.
/ou/ ou ou, chegou, fado louco ©, se douram ©. or, he/she/it arrived, mad fado, they are gilded / become bright

In the standard accent (Lisboa/Coimbra), this is identical with /o/. The older diphthong is however preserved in the north of Portugal and Galicia.

Note that in the Portuguese spelling system, this combination 'ou' never has the [u] sound, which it has in French and Greek. Thus Couto and Douro are pronounced [kotu] and [doru], not [kuto] and [duro]. This is exactly the other way round as especially Dutch people who know some French, almost invariably think.

/eu/ eu meus ©, seu, Deus ©, deu ©, correu © my, his, God, (he/she/it) gave, (he/she/it) ran  
/Eu/ éu céu ©, céus ©, chapéu heaven(s), hat  
/au/ ao ao, aos on the, on the  
au mau bad Before /l/ and /u/, the open and clear sound [a] turns into a much darker [A]: Examples are mau, mal, and fatal ©.
Nasalised diphthongs (see note 10)
/3~i~/ emF tem ©, têm ©, têm ©, mantêm ©, vem, vêm, cem, sem ©, nem ©, margem, quem © he/she/it has, they have, they maintain, one hundred, without, nor, border/margin, who(m) The merging of ãe and em is a peculiarity of the Portuguese in Portugal, or more accurately, in the middle-class accent of Lisbon. It doesn't take place in Brazil, other parts of Portugal (Porto, north), Madeira, Africa.
In Portugal, the accent of Coimbra was always seen as the standard pronunciation, but nowadays the middle-class accent of Lisbon is becoming more influential, and developing into a de facto standard.

See also note 9.

For tem ©, and têm ©, mantém and mantêm ©, see also grapheme êm.
enS tens, margens © you have, borders
émF também, porém, ninguém ©, mantém also, however, nobody, he/she/it maintains
ãe mãe ©, cães, pães, alemães mother, dogs, loaves, Germans
/3~u~/ ão falarão ©, dirão ©, não © they will speak, they will say, no Nearly always in stressed position. But the phoneme /3~u~/ is sometimes also written ão in unstressed position: sótão (attic), órgão (organ), acórdão (sentence / judgement), Estêvão (Stephen), Joãozinho (Johnny), bênção (blessing), côvão (fish-trap).
Strange coincidence: when un-nasalised, the sound is practically identical to the sound written oo or o in the Rotterdam colloquial pronunciation of Dutch. Details and sample here.
amF falam, falaram © they speak, they spoke Final, in unstressed position. Only (or chiefly?) written like this in conjugated verbs.
/u~i~/ ui muito © many, much Occurs only in this single word! (and of course in its derivatives, "muita", "muitas", "muitos", "muitíssimo, etc. Nasalisation is not shown in the spelling in this special case.
/o~i~/ õe põe /po~i~/, põem /po~i~3~i~/, ilusões ©, eleições ©, condições © he puts, they put, illusions, elections, conditions Occurs mostly in the plural ending -ões of words that in the singular end in -ão. (But some words in -ão have plurals in -ães or -ãos). This diphthong tends to be more like [O~i~] than [o~i~], which is strange, because all nasalised vowels are of the more close variety (o~, not O~, e~, not E~, and 3~, not a~).
See also note 9

Alphabetic listing
Phonemic listing

Vowel diagram

This diagram shows the relative tongue positions for the nine non-nasalised vowels (left) and the five nasalised vowels (right). Below is the same diagram in X-SAMPA transcription, to show how the ASCII symbols used throughout the document correspond to the real phonetic transcription symbols.

Vowel diagram
Vowel diagram

Phoneme summary

     i   1   u       i~     u~

      e      o        e~    o~

       E  3  O           3~

          a

The same vowel triangle in IPA-ASCII transcription looks like this:

     i   i"  u       i~     u~
        
      e      o        e~    o~

       E  V" O           V"~

          a

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