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I can never remember those Latin expressions, partly because my 1968-1969 grammar school adventure failed miserably after only one year, so I continued not learning Latin. But I can look them up:

Both are untrue, when applied to money creation and to wealth differences. There is no causal link. They are fallacies.

Different definition, same system

But he went, using his waiting and apparently ignorant hosts as an excuse. He felt a burning rage against himself. He passed the porter without a tip. Naturally the man would not let him leave, tried to intimidate him, shook his shoulders, but Ladethe ignored him completely, and this unusual lack of fear in such a thin man puzzled him so that he finally released him.

So he went – Chapter 1

The tilde (~) always means nasalisation, but not all nasalised vowels and diphthongs are indicated by a tilde:

The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal - Stress rules and accents

When learning a foreign language, I like to use a dictionary that in addition to meanings also gives some etymological information. Even if I don't try nor intend to remember the etymology, this historical background often helps me to remember the word and its meaning, because the connections and associations with things I already know make that easier.

Remembering words, and etymology

Israelis and Palestinians have equal rights to Israel/Palestine. They are predestined to live together in that land, maybe as two autonomous states, better still as two peoples in a common state, living together peacefully.


MPE/CMI proponents are keen on claiming that a CMI is so much cheaper than a bank, which is one of the reasons why the CMI need not work with interest. To quote Mike Montagne: [...] and maintains our accounts, [...], at virtually no cost whatever.

However, just above we noticed the reverse: the CMI must interfere in every business transaction, even small and frequent ones, if they involve the creation of ‘money’ in the form of promissory obligations. The CMI must have or obtain detailed market knowledge, in order to assess what the promise is worth, expressed in dollars used as units of account.

CMI, and then?

He sat down behind a desk near the windows, and stared at left-behind computer terminals, manuals, and all sorts of other papers. Outside was a magnificent view on the twilighted city, a sight that the people working here never enjoyed, because of the lights. He sat there for almost half an hour, absorbing this atmosphere so familiar to him, yet now so different. He had worked in an office rather like this one, worked very hard with little result. Now for the first time he could afford to spend time doing nothing, just feeling and thinking in an unorderly manner.

So he went – Chapter 1

Personally I prefer to write all my pages in ISO-8859-1. That supports all the languages I ever write in: Dutch, English, German, Portuguese, Interlingua, plus rarely French and Spanish. In fact, ISO-8859-1 supports many more languages than I’ll ever need: those of a large X across Europe: from Finnish in the northeast to Spanish and Portuguese in the southwest (including Madeira, Canary Islands and Azores); and from Icelandic in the northwest via Italian to Albanian in the southeast.

As a result of the colonialism period, all of the Americas and large parts of Africa (when looking at official languages rather than local languages) are also covered.

Exotic entities

From an earlier analysis it appeared that the promissory obligations that Mike Montagne proposes, to replace the existing type of money (which is bank money), is a promise to pay. How that actual payment then should take place, or if maybe the promise itself already is the payment, remained unclear.

Now however we see that a promissory obligation is not a promise to pay, but a promise to deliver goods in return for other goods. (Goods or services, probably. “Something”, anyway, in Mike’s own words.)

Promissory obligations to each other (d)


Promissory obligations are not suitable for use as money. They cannot solve the problems of barter.

Next article

Perhaps implementing promissory obligations using computers, in a Common Monetary Infrastructure, can improve the chances of using promissory obligation for payments.

That will be the subject of my next article.

Pay with a promise?

What could have caused these mistaken translations? (That is assuming they are really wrong; I could be mistaken myself, because neither English nor German is my native tongue; but in my own language too, ‘Open camping’ would not express the right idea.)

My assumption is that the text on the sign was written by a French(wo)man, who learned English and German in school pretty well. So he or she is aware that adjectives, which are most often after the corresponding nouns in Romance languages, must be put in front of them in Germanic languages.

Only here the rule was applied too rigorously, in a situation where it shouldn’t have been! The fact that a campsite is open, or opened, not closed, is not expressed by a preceding adjective, but by a shortened predicative sentence.

Adjectives in front

In addition to coins, we now have banknotes. The paper they are made of is essentially worthless (although the production costs of banknotes are not negligible). Banknotes derive their value from what they symbolically represent: a claim to an issuing central bank.

Representing all value?

In the appropriate folders, copies of the files are stored. What’s more, next time I do that, only new files, and old files that have meanwhile changed, are written to the backup disk. This speeds up the backup process considerably.

Using xcopy for backups

Money that someone, a company, including a bank, could use to buy something or pay for something, must be at the left of the balance sheet. It is an asset, something the bank owns.

Money that results from money creation however, is always at the right side of the balance sheet. It is a liability, a debt to the owner of that money.

Left or right

A language with so many consonants and so few vowels could not be beautiful anymore, and Portuguese is. Perhaps in an attempt to keep the balance, it also developed long sequences of vowels and diphthongs. There are triphthongs, tetraphthongs, pentaphthongs, hexaphthongs, heptaphthongs, and even octophthongs.


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