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I make backups on portable USB disk drives, USB sticks and disk drives on other computers, via the network. If you have more than one disk, or several partitions in your computer, you might also make backups from d: to c: or from c: to d:, etc.

Now suppose I want to backup my photos from d: to a USB disk, which when plugging it in, is automatically mounted as f: .

First I have to make the source directory (folder) the current directory.

Using xcopy for backups


To the persons and companies that hold those banknotes, they are not debt, but claims, assets. Therefore they appear on the asset side, debit side, left side of their balance sheets.

Likewise, deposits in a non-central bank, that is, credit balances in bank accounts held by the public, are debt (liability) for the bank, and not debt for the account holder. For the account holder, they are assets, claims, financial belongings.

Money as debt? Money as claims!


My quote continues at 3m44s, where Mike Montagne says about banks:

How they merely intervene upon our commerce, to merely publish evidence of our promissory obligations to each other.

This is fundamentally wrong, for a lot of reasons:

Promissory obligations to each other (a)


Unix is case sensitive: the difference between uppercase and lowercase letter is important and changes meaning. Therefore purists always write command names like grep in lowercase, even in running text when the name appears at the start of a sentence.

Grep -v? No, -L!


Why is it that the area on the back of credit cards and debit cards, where you are supposed to put your signature, is so small?

Why so small?


Verbs in -ar

Verbs that have an infinitive that ends in -ar, and which have an e or o in the penultimate syllable have the open sound (as if written é or ó) whenever that syllable is stressed.
Example: emprego /e~prEgu/ (I use /AI ju:z/), emprega /e~prEg3/ (he/she/it uses), etc.
See also verb vs. noun.

Regular alternations of half-open sounds


After that eventual recognition of my mistake, it took me almost a year and a half, until September 16/17, until I finally corrected my description.

I am slow, but I learn!

The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal - Stress rules and accents - Now different


What is so strange is that Mike Montagne, in a tweet on 16 June 2013, claimed that he “was the top student in my accounting course in college.”, and nevertheless doesn’t understand the basic and rather simple things about accounting that I just explained above.

Promissory obligations to each other (a)


So after the twofold accounting transaction in the bank’s books, for granting credit, the principal is at the debit side, the amount of the loan, what the borrower owes the bank, the claim that the bank has on the borrower, part of the bank’s assets.

By definition, by nature of what double bookkeeping entails, this principal is already in the possession of the bank, from the very first millisecond the credit existed. There is no need, or even a possibility, for a bank to “launder” that principal “into their possession”.

Promissory obligations to each other (b)


I think human feelings and behaviour are hardly rational, but largely instinctive, determined by genetic factors. The evolution of the species happens slowly. We are essentially the same humans as those who lived tens of thousands of years back.

A road to peace


Now why make this a problem? It all varies as you vary your demand. If you can’t go out, it only bothers you if you want to, and if you can, you won’t. You have one thing you want, but then very intensely, you can do without all of the others, except for the very basic needs, but being trapped, you don’t need a roof anymore, and maybe they could digest mould, like worms do. If only you had that one very splendid thing, even could choose which one, like music or love. Music requires effort, and love does not, or if it’s growing or it’s fading it does. So then skip even love, if he had to, put it all on music, and if that fails, nothing remains, nothing remains. Ultimate despair. Put it all on one card, and fail.

So he went – Chapter 3


1. God’s inheritance

God does exist. Nature is so miraculous, so complex yet effective, that there must have been a thinking, knowing Being who once designed it. Human scientists have not halfway managed to see through this design, to understand the laws of nature, birth, life and death of stars, the genetic codesystem of DNA, the functioning of the brain, and many other miracles, some of which are not even known to exist yet.

God’s inheritance


He stood there for quite a while, watching those people so different from himself, but perhaps hardly happier than he. When he got thirsty he tried to reach the bar in the opposite corner, tacking all the time to avoid touching anyone. Nevertheless he had to stoop part of the way, to make men getting hostile lose sight if him. At the bar he waited patiently for the tender to come to him, but he didn’t pay any attention. Another man coming to the bar two stools to his right was instantly served. He still believed it was a coincidence. Getting impatient, he made gestures, opened his mouth in unheard shouts, showed his wallet, but still nothing happened. The tender sat down on his stool, and stared at some imaginary object one foot to the right of his head, with an amused smile on his face.

So he went – Chapter 1


He forgot about it all in a threefold outburst of hilarity. They stumbled down the concrete stairs in an ever closer and more chaotic embrace. Outside the building they kept running, through shrubs, along the edge of a pond, and they even tried to impede a fountain’s sprinkling. They all got wet, and the girl showed in her tight blouse dark summits. Not desire, as Ladethe stealthily suspected, had caused them to swell, but the cold of the water.

So he went – Chapter 1


Paying is done by transferring part of such a promise (i.e., the balance in a transaction account held by a member of the public) to another account holder.

A CMI cannot replace that.

Buying a house with a promise



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