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The Portuguese word garça, says the Porto Editora is from Latin ardea (ardĕa, if you can see an e breve). Now this is a rather unusual difference, usually Portuguese word are much closer to their Latin ancestors. Are any intermediate stages known, to see the development from ardea to garça?

Garça, gaibéu, Al-Jaziira, Algeria

Of course, things like á for á and é for é do work. So I thought by analogy, I could also put an acute accent on letters like c and s, to get those special characters needed for languages such as Serbian, Croation and Polish.

Exotic entities

Man is not idealistic, and we must not close our eyes to that and hope it will ever be different. Man does what is advantageous to him, and in the decision feeling and habit play a bigger role than does reason.


We see here the phenomenon of increasing the balance sheet total, by adding the loan amount at the debit side, and at the credit side the corresponding availability of the amount to the borrower. What happens here between central bank and government is the same thing as what I described for a non-central bank and its borrowing client here.

Central bank funding government?

If more money automatically meant more products, 3% interest (money supply increasing interest, that is) would require an annual economic growth of 3%, possibly resulting in 3% more harm to the environment.

This too is untrue, for the reasons already outlined above.

Representing all value?

It is a tragic fact that many religions oppose to this. The usual argument, that it would be unnatural to interfere with human propagation, disregards the fact that man has overcome his natural bounds. Birth control is indeed unnatural, yet it is necessary to return man to nature. Birth control is not against the will of God, but is a moral obligation, imposed upon us by God.

Man and the rest of nature

The probability of meeting people belonging to another group was low, because the population was scattered. If an encounter took place, the necessity of mutual support, such as existed within the group, was absent. The others were rivals rather than friends. Hiding, or defensive or hostile attitudes were the best way to stay safe.

A road to peace

So I properly stopped web server Apache, did my log file manipulations, and then restarted Apache. Much more comme il faut and reliable. So far so good.

Fixing a hole where the rain gets in

Pythagoras (in Greek: Πυθαγόρας) accepted only factors 2 (octave) and 3 (fifth) for these ratios. That does produce elegant ratios, except in somewhat more complete scales, when rather large integers appear in the frequency ratios. For example, a major third, built from two major seconds of 9:8, gets the ratio 81:64 (or 407.82 cents). A must nicer ratio is 5:4, also a major third, at 386.31 cents. But this requires the factor 5, which Πυθαγόρας did not want. Aristoxenos (Αριστόξενος in Greek) did.

Arabic music takes this a step further: it also uses the factor 11. (And 7, or so they say, but I have never heard that myself. I have found the factor 17; see below). Three tones with frequency ratios 10:11:12 produce intervals of 165.00 and 150.64 cents, which is approximately 150, or one and a half semitones. Together that clearly makes 315.64, which corresponds to the minor third ratio of 6:5. By combining these intervals with the more "common" ones in several ways, we get the maqâmât in this aforementioned link.

Amsterdam is a melodious city

Everyone has an unconditional right to decline a sexual advance. This is valid also in matrimony, and even in case of allurement by the person who refuses to go on later.


The judgment of other people’s sexual behaviour should not be based upon one’s own preferences, for it is among the facts of life, that what you find wonderful is despised by others, and vice versa.


Election threshold

An intermediate system between proportional representation and majority voting in districts, is proportionalism with an election threshold. Germany has this voting system.

With an election threshold, even small parties can win seats in parliament, but only if they get, for example, more than 5 percent of the votes.

This systems promotes clarity and governability. Large minorities can be heard, but the small ones are not.

A more effective democracy

It may be just me, but I hear a strange similarity between sounds that are clearly different, viz.

on the one hand, and the Dutch sound written ui (phonetically [9y]) on the other hand.

Similarities between dissimilar sounds

Many peoples live on soil that was stolen long ago. For example the English once moved from northern Germany and southern Danmark into the British isles, dislodging the Celts. The Celts probably were not the original inhabitants either. Later English people (and many from other peoples too) emigrated to north America, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Tasmania. The subdued, dislodged or even killed the original population. Yet this historic injustice today cannot be a reason to send the immigrants’ descendants back. On the other hand there is no reason to be proud of it, as the Americans seem to be of their victory over the Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century, which in fact meant little else than genocide to many Indian peoples.


In a democracy the majority decides. This is the basic principle of every system of democratic government.

But there is yet another foundation of the rule of law, and that is the protection of minorities. Minorities have rights, and in my opinion, minorities should also have a voice, clearly heard in a representation of the people, an elected parliament.

A more effective democracy

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