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Special meaning of êm when final, in verbal forms
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#keywords: circumflex (26952), diphthong (17392), mantem (13180), nasalised (13171), demencia (7815), entreter (7815), temples (7815), absense (7815), temporas (7815), acute (7230), verbal (6922), accent (6647), grapheme (6590), dictate (6466), welcome (6386), maintains (6309), listing (6233), denotes (6024), suggestions (5771), mid (5572), presence (5440), special (5439), verbs (5187), forms (5152), accents (5112), extremely (4947), maintain (4869), difference (4644), meaning (4272), behaviour (4200), origins (4054), distinguish (3952)
Note 17: Special meaning of êm when final, in verbal forms The grapheme êm is not always pronounced with this double nasalised diphthong , but only in some words, like têm © , vêm and mantêm © , and other verbal forms derived from verbs "ter" and "vir". (Are there any other examples? I am not aware of one. Suggestions welcome.) On the other hand, cases where êm gets the normal single nasalised diphthong are extremely rare: the only ones I could find, using the word list in the tool Ergane , are: têmporas (temples) and êmbolo (piston). In the song I took the sample of the word têm © from, is also the word demência. Here the êm simply denotes a nasalised /e~/, which gets a circumflex accent because otherwise the Stress rules would dictate that the stress be on the i. The difference between tem © , and têm © (absense and presence of the circumflex accent) becomes a difference between the acute and the circumflex accent in verbs that have ter as their second element: Confer mantém (he maintains) and mantêm © , (they maintain). Other verbs with this spelling / sound behaviour are abster, ater, conter, deter, entreter, obter, reter and suster. These accents normally indicate tongue height of the vowel (acute: low á / mid-low é or ó; circumflex: mid-low â / mid-high ê or ô). But in this special case they distinguish the single diphthong (no accent or acute) from the double diphthong (circumflex). Copyright © 2000-2007 by R. Harmsen Back to main document Alphabetic listing Phonemic listing Sample origins Links to glossaries Phoneme summary List of notes Colours: Neutral Weird No preference Reload screen ...
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