GRAMMATICA DE INTERLINGUA
de Alexander Gode & Hugh E. Blair
traducite ex anglese a interlingua per Selahattin Kayalar, Pasadena, le Statos Unite
assistite per Piet Cleij (Paises Basse), Bent Andersen (Danmark),
Ferenc Jeszenszky (Hungaria) e Stanley Mulaik (SUA), Augusto 2005

Lege primo le Curso minime !
PRINCIPIOS GENERAL ||| ORTHOGRAPHIA E PRONUNCIATION §1-14 • Orthographia collateral §15 • Punctuation §16
PARTES DEL DISCURSO • Articulo definite §17-18 • Articulo indefinite §19-21
   Substantivos §22-24 • Plurales §25-28 • Nomines proprie §29 • Apposition §30 | Adjectivos §31-42 • Comparation de adjectivos §34-42
   Adverbios §43-53 • Comparation de adverbios §50-53
   Pronomines §54-79 • Tabula de pronomines personal §54-59 • Pronomine personal indefinite §60-63 • Possessivos §64-65
       Reflexivos §66-73 • Relativos §74-76 • Demonstrativos §78-79
   Verbos §80-117 • Infinitivo §81-92 Participio presente §93-94 • Participio passate §95-98 • Tempore presente §99-101
       Tempore passate §102-106 • Tempore futur §107 • Conditional §108-109 • Imperativo §110-111 • Passivo §112-114
       Tabula de conjugation §115 • Le question §116 • Le sequentia de tempores §117
   Numerales §118-133 • Cardinales §118-124 • Ordinales §125 • Le adjectivo fractional §126 • Multiplicativos §127-128
       Le numerales collective §129 • Numeros adverbial §130 • Le functiones de numerales §131 • Datas e horas de die §132-133
   Particulas grammatic §134Lista de particulas grammatic
CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS • Le theoria de construction de parolas §135-167
   I Derivation §136-154 • I.A Derivation ab substantivos §138-140 • I.A.a Substantivos ab substantivos §138
      I.A.b Adjectivos ab substantivos §139 • I.A.c. Verbos ab substantivos §140
      I.B Derivation ab adjectivos §141 • I.B.a. Substantivos ab adjectivos §141 • I.B.b Adjectivos ab adjectivos §142
      I.B.c Adverbios ab adjectivos §143 • I.B.d Verbos ab adjectivos §144
      I.C. Derivation ab verbos §145-154 • Prime thema §146-147 • Secunde thema §148-151
      Substantivos ab verbos §152 • Adjectivos ab verbos §152 • Suffixos postverbal adjective §153 • Suffixos postverbal substantive §154
   II Composition §155-167 • II.A Composition per medio de prefixos §156 • II.A.a Prefixos general §157 • Prefixos technic §158
      II.B Composition per medio de formas compositori §159-162
   III Derivation composite §163-167 • Composition per prefixos §163-164 • Prepositiones e conjunctiones §165-167
Appendice 1. Verbos de duple thema
Appendice 2. Lista de parolas anglese-interlingua
Appendice 3. Textos exemplar
Altere material grammatic
INDICE ALPHABETIC

GRAMMATICA DE INTERLINGUA

Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:
PRINCIPIOS GENERAL DEL GRAMMATICA

(Prefacio de "INTERLINGUA, a grammar of the international language")

"Vocabulario" e "grammatica" non es duo categorias hermeticamente isolate. Si le grammatica describe le structura de un lingua, il va sin dicer que nulle tal description pote offerer se sin referentia constante a materia lexical illustrative de varie tractos structural. Sed il es etiam ver que il non pote haber un dictionario de vocabulos presentate como materia crude amorphe. Listas lexical necessarimente possede structura, e le structura de vocabulos e expressiones es un cosa del grammatica.

Iste observationes non suggere que le distinction inter vocabulario e grammatica poterea esser abandonate, ni que lor tractamento sub capites separate es exclusivemente un acto de convenientia practic. Illos solmente reaffirma le facto que le vocabulario e le grammatica de un lingua particular es interdependente como aspectos natural e necessarimente compatibile de un singule phenomeno. Ultra isto illos pote relevar le question qual characteristicas special distingue le relationes inter le vocabulario e le grammatica in le caso de un lingua planate.

Le character basic de qualcunque lingua es in grande parte determinate per tractos de natura structural, i.e. grammatic.

Le dictionario de un lingua pote esser invadite per torrentes de vocabulos foranee, sed si su patronos de structura lexical e syntactic remane intacte, le materia foranee essera finalmente assimilate e le character basic del lingua supervivera essentialmente inalterate.

Iste principio, applicabile a omne linguas, es illustrate impressivemente per le anglese con su considerabile vocabulario romanic assimilate in un base germanic.

Il non ha un ration apparente que linguas auxiliar planate esserea governate per leges fundamentalmente differente. Totevia, superficialmente lor situation pare completemente reverse. Il habeva ample opportunitate pro observar que, un vice que accordo super le vocabulario le melior possibile pro un lingua auxiliar es assecurate, opiniones differente con respecto a problemas grammatic duce a nihil altere que variantes parallel de un singule lingua general. Sed isto non es assi proque le structura grammatic de un lingua planate es minus significante que illo del linguas natural; illo es assi proque un vocabulario establite implica le determination de si multe questiones de structura, i.e. de grammatica, que le tractos grammatic remanente joca necessarimente un rolo subordinate e dependente.

Il es, alora, solmente un inversion apparente del principio que le grammatica precede le vocabulario que, post determinar le vocabulario de un lingua auxiliar planate, tote que remane a dicer via le grammatica debe completemente subordinar se al characteristicas structural del vocabulario. Le structura grammatic de un lingua planate determina su character basic precisemente como le structura de un lingua natural. Sed le determination del vocabulario lassa pauc questiones grammatic totalmente indeterminate.

Le vocabulario de Interlingua per le IALA es incorporate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary. Le principio fundamental del grammatica correspondente debe esser que iste grammatica sia le systema le minime o le plus simple possibile que es apte pro governar le uso del vocabulario seligite in linguage coherente.

Le effortios del IALA pro compilar un dictionario de parolas generalmente international duceva necessarimente al collection de un vocabulario essentialmente romanic. Le linguas fonte a cuje sphera cerca e recerca poteva securmente restringer se esseva espaniol e portugese, italiano, francese, e anglese, con germano e russo como possibile substitutos. [*]

In consequentia un principio solide de guida in le elaboration del systema grammatical de IALA es que le termino "grammatica minimal" non permittera le suppression de ulle tracto grammatic que secundo le testimonio del linguas fonte es indispensabile in le governamento de lor vocabularios e in consequentia del vocabulario del Interlingua incorporate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary. In altere terminos,
cata tracto grammatic essera retenite, si illo manca in un del linguas fonte, o inversemente
nulle tracto grammatic essera retenite, si illo manca in un del linguas fonte.
Assi, per exemplo, le tracto de un forma plural distincte del substantivos debe esser retenite proque illo se monstra exister in omne linguas fonte, durante que le tracto de generes grammatic pote esser omittite proque illo manca in un del linguas fonte, a saper in anglese.
 
 

Le determination de qual tractos grammatic debe esser retenite in le Interlingua, lassa aperte le question del formas que sia usate pro representar lo. Le formas de tractos grammatic es determinate tanto como possibile per le methodos elaborate pro le "standardisation" de formas de parolas como analysate in le Introduction al Interlingua-English Dictionary.

Si le material del grammatica sequente pare esser organisate de un maniera aliquanto inorthodoxe, le ration es simplemente que certe capitulos generalmente representate in grammaticas conventional poteva esser omittite in le caso presente proque lor materia es completemente coperite per le Dictionario. Assi iste grammatica non contine, per exemplo, discussiones special de prepositiones e conjunctiones excepte un paragrapho sub le titulo de construction de parolas. Il essera etiam notate que il non ha ulle section concernente le problemas del syntaxe. Tal problemas realmente existe in Interlingua, sed il pareva opportun tractar los in connexion con le varie partes del discurso cuje functiones in le phrase pote esser extendite a implicar tote le questiones syntactic de importantia practic. Le apparato technic del Dictionario (le lista de abbreviationes, etc.) es applicabile etiam al Grammatica e illo ha essite includite de novo in le paginas sequente.
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[*] Pro le detalios, vide Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction".


Traduction ab anglese in interlingua per
Selahattin Kayalar
Pasadena, Statos Unite de America, augusto 2005,
adjutate per
Piet Cleij (Paises Basse),
Bent Andersen (Danmark),
Ferenc Jeszenszky (Hungaria) e
Stanley Mulaik (SUA).

INTERLINGUA GRAMMAR

Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:
INTERLINGUA GRAMMAR: GENERAL PRINCIPLES

(Prefacio de "INTERLINGUA, a grammar of the international language")

"Vocabulary" and "grammar" are not hermetically sealed-off categories. A grammar describes the structure of a language, it goes without saying that no such description can be offered without constant reference to word material illustrative of various structural features. But it is also true that there can be no dictionary of words presented as amorphous raw material. Lexical listings are necessarily possessed of structure, and the structure of words and phrases is a matter of grammar.

These observations are not to suggest that the distinction between vocabulary and grammar might be abandoned, nor even that their treatment under separate heads is exclusively a matter of practical convenience. They are merely to restate the fact that the vocabulary and the grammar of a particular language are interdependent as naturally and necessarily compatible aspects of one and the same phenomenon. Beyond this they may raise the question as to what special characteristics distinguish the relationship of vocabulary and grammar in the case of a planned interlingua.

The basic character of any language is largely determined by features of a structural, ie., a grammatical nature.

Let the dictionary of a language be invaded by hordes of foreign words, as long as its patterns of word and sentence structure stay intact, the foreign material will eventually be assimilated and the basic character of the language will survive essentially unchanged.

This principle, applicable to all languages, is strikingly illustrated by English with its very considerable Romance vocabulary assimilated to a Teutonic base.

There is no apparent reason that planned auxiliary languages should be governed by fundamentally different laws. Yet superficially their situation does look completely reversed. There has been ample opportunity to observe that once agreement on the best possible vocabulary for an auxiliary language is assured, diversities of opinion in regard to grammatical problems lead to nothing more than parallel variants of one general language. But this is not so because the grammatical structure of planned languages is less significant than that of natural languages; it is so because an established vocabulary implies the settlement of so many questions of structure, ie., of grammar, that the remaining grammatical features play of necessity a subordinate and dependent role.
 

It is, then, only a seeming reversal of the principle of grammar's precedence over vocabulary that after the vocabulary of a planned auxiliary language has been determined all that remains to be said by way of grammar must be completely subordinated to the structural characteristics of the vocabulary. The grammatical structure of a planned language determines its basic character precisely as does the structure of a natural language but the determination of the vocabulary leaves few grammatical questions wholly indeterminate.

The vocabulary of IALA's form of the interlingua is that embodied in the Interlingua-English Dictionary. The fundamental principle of the corresponding grammar must be that this grammar shall be the minimum or simplest possible system fit to govern the use of the chosen vocabulary in coherent speech.

IALA's endeavor to compile a dictionary of generally international words led of necessity to the assembly of a basically Romance vocabulary. The source languages to whose domain search and research could safely be restricted were Spanish and Portuguese, Italian, French, and English, with German and Russian as possible substitutes. [*]

Hence a sound working principle in the elaboration of IALA's system of grammar is that the term "minimum grammar" shall not permit the suppression of any grammatical feature which according to the testimony of the source languages is indispensable in the government of their vocabularies and hence of the vocabulary of the interlingua embodied in the Interlingua-English Dictionary. In other words,
every grammatical feature which is encountered in all the source languages shall be retained in the grammar of the interlingua, or negatively,
no grammatical feature shall be so retained if it is missing from as much as one of the source languages.
Thus, for instance, the feature of a distinctive plural form of nouns must be retained because it is found to exist in all the source languages while the feature of grammatical gender can be dispensed with because it is missing in one of the source languages, ie., in English.

The determination of what grammatical features are to be retained in the interlingua leaves open the question of the forms which are to be used to represent them. The forms of grammatical features are determined as far as possible by means of the method worked out for the "standardization" of forms of words as analyzed in the Introduction to the Interlingua-English Dictionary.

If the material of the following grammar appears to be organized in a somewhat unorthodox way, the reason is simply that certain chapters ordinarily represented in conventional grammars could be omitted in the present instance because their subject matter is completely covered by the Dictionary. Thus the grammar contains, for example, no special discussion of prepositions and conjunctions except for a paragraph under heading of word building. It will also be noted that there is no section concerned with problems of syntax. Such problems do exist in Interlingua, but it seemed expedient to treat them in connection with the various parts of speech whose functions in the sentence can be made to involve all syntactic questions of practical import. - The technical apparatus of the Dictionary (list of abbreviations, etc.) applies to the Grammar as well and has not been included again in the following pages.

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[*] For further details, see Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction".


In finnese:
Alexander Gode - Hugh E. Blair:
KIELIOPIN YLEISET PERIAATTEET

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Grammatica
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Orthographia e pronunciation
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§1 Le LITTERAS usate es le vinti-sex litteras conventional del alphabeto roman. Il ha nulle signos e symbolos extra pro indicar le accento e le pronunciation.

§2 Le NORMA DE PRONUNCIATION es "continental." Le valores de sono del varie litteras es fluide intra limites de typo. Illos pote esser naturalmente influentiate per sonos proxime como etiam per habitos native de parlatores individual. Per exemplo, le sono de -u - describite in le expression "como -u in anglese {plural} - esserea justemente pronunciate como -oo in anglese {good} o {loom}, sed non como -u in anglese {stutter} o in le francese {lune}.

§3 On debe guardar se del tendentia de parlatores anglese a obscurar vocales sin accento, facente los omnes sonar como -a in anglese {China}. Isto se applica particularmente al -e final. Nulle sono, final o altere, con o sin accento, debe esser pronunciate indistinctemente.

§4 Le pronunciation anglese normal concorda con illo usate in le Interlingua pro le litteras -b, -d, -f, -k, -l, -m, -n, -p, -ph, -qu, -v, -w, e -z. Le litteras remanente es coperite per le regulas e observationes sequente:

a - es sempre pronunciate como -a in anglese {father};

c - ante -e, -i, -y es pronunciate como -ts in anglese {hats} (o, optionalmente, como -c in anglese {city}); alteremente como -c in anglese {cats}; -ch como -ch in anglese {echo}, {chrome};

e - sempre como -e in anglese {met} o, melior, como -é in francese {risqué};

g - como -g in anglese {good};

h - como in anglese (o, optionalmente, silente); post -r e -t, mute;

i - normalmente como -i in anglese {machine}; quando non accentuate ante un vocal, como -i in anglese {onion} o {phobia}; p.ex. bile, biliose, varie;

j - como -z in anglese {azure} (o, optionalmente, como -g in anglese {gem} o como -y in {yes});

o - sempre como -o in anglese {obey};

r - como -rr in anglese {merry} o, melior, como -r in espaniol {caro};

s - como -s in anglese {stay}; inter vocales, le mesme (o, optionalmente, como -s in anglese {these}); p.ex. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;

t - como in anglese; -ti ante vocales, a minus que accentuate o precedite per -s, como -tsy in anglese {he gets you} (o, optionalmente, como -sy in anglese {we pass you} o como -ty in anglese {we let you}); p.ex. actor, garantia, question, sed action, reverentia;

u - normalmente como -u in anglese {plural}; quando non accentuate ante un vocal, como -u in anglese {persuade} o {superfluous}; p.ex. plural, persuader, superflue;

x - como -x in anglese {fox}; inter vocales, le mesme (o, optionalmente, como -x in anglese {exact});

y - non accentuate ante vocales, como -y in anglese {yes}; alteremente como -i in anglese {machine}; p.ex. Yugoslavia, typo.

§5 In DIPHTHONGOS le vocales retene lor valores de sono independente. Le diphthongo -ai es pronunciate como in germano {kaiser}, -au como in germano {kraut}. Le -e e -i accentuate es separate per un pausa syllabic ab un -a, -e, -o sequente; p.ex. mie, io, spondeo, via, bastardia. Non accentuate -i e -u se transforma in semiconsonantes ante un vocal sequente; p.ex. Bulgaria, filatorio, persuader.

§6 CONSONANTES DUPLE se fusiona in pronunciation. Le consonante duple -ss es sempre silente como -ss in anglese {miss}. Le sonos de -g e -k assimila un -n precedente como in anglese. Nota que le consonante duple -cc es scribite -c al fin de un parola (siccar sed sic).

§7 Pronunciationes deviante de iste normas es indicate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per un systema de rescriber in le qual le litteras ha le mesme valores de sono como in Interlingua. Le digrapho -ch representa frequentemente le sono de -sh in anglese {English} e es rescribite como -sh; p.ex. choc (sh-). Le combination -gi sovente representa le sono de -z in anglese {azure} e es rescribite como -j ; p.ex. avantagiose (-ajo-). Le -g simple ha iste sono e ergo es rescribite assi in le suffixo -age; p.ex. avantage (-aje).

§8 Pro cambios orthographic in derivation, vide §137.

§9 "VOCABULOS HOSPITE" non-assimilate, i.e. parolas foranee o prestate le quales es identificate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary quanto a lor origine, retene le pronunciation e orthographia del lingua original. Le signos diacritic original es omittite quando le orthographia simplificate resultante suffice pro suggerer le pronunciation intendite; p.ex. defaite pro francese {défaite}, sed kümmel como in germano.

§10 Le ACCENTO principal es normalmente super le vocal ante le ultime consonante. Le desinentia plural non cambia le accento original del parola. Adjectivos e substantivos con desinentias in -le, -ne, e -re precedite per un vocal ha le accento super le tertie syllaba ab le fin; p.ex. frágile, órdine, témpore. In parolas formate con le suffixos -ic, -ica, -ico, -ide, -ido, -ula, e -ulo le accento cade super le syllaba que precede le suffixo. Le suffixos -ific e -ifico es accentuate super le prime -i.

Deviationes ab iste systema de accento es coperite in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per rescriber con signos de accento. Le majoritate de iste deviationes pote esser coperite per regulas descriptive additional. Per exemplo, le suffixos -issim, -esim, -ifer, e -olog es accentuate super le prime vocal. Le suffixos -ia e -eria, in tanto que illos corresponde al anglese {-y} e {-ery}, es accentuate super le vocal -i; etc.

Nota: Parolas sin un consonante o sin un vocal ante le ultime consonante es accentuate per necessitate super le prime vocal; p.ex. ío, vía, e certe formas de tempore presente, como strúe, créa, etc. Sed cónstrue, prócrea, etc. e etiam dimínue, substítue, etc. seque le regula standard e ha le accento super le vocal ante le ultime consonante.

§11 Le importantia de regularitate del accentuation non debe esser exaggerate. Le effortio involvite in acquirer un accentuation non-familiar pro un parola alteremente familiar pare sovente exaggerate. Isto, naturalmente, non implica que parolas de Interlingua pote esser accentuate completemente al hasardo, sed que un parola como kilometro remane le mesme parola international si habitos native causa que un parlator lo accentua super le secunde o super le tertie syllaba.

§12 Habitos native pote equalmente esser permittite prevaler in questiones de INTONATION, DURATION DE SONOS, e simile. Es suggerite, nonobstante, que le sequentia de un vocal final e un vocal initial, ambes non accentuate e non separate per un pausa in intonation, es pronunciate como un syllaba combinate glissante; p.ex. le alte Ural, quasi como si illo habeva le quatro syllabas le-ál-teu-rál.

§13 Le SYLLABATION seque le pronunciation. Consonantes singule, excepte -x, pertine al syllaba sequente. Gruppos de consonantes es dividite, sed -l e -r non debe esser separate de precedente -b, -c, -ch, -f, -g, -p, -ph, -t, -th, e -v. Le combinationes -qu, -gu, e -su se comporta como consonantes singule.

§14 Le USO DE MAJUSCULAS differe del usage anglese in que intra le phrase majusculas initial occurre exclusivemente con nomines proprie, sed non con derivatos de illos.
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In Francia le franceses parla francese ab le initio de lor vita.
 

Le piscatores del Mar Morte cape haringos salate.
 

Le ver stilo shakespearean se trova solmente in Shakespeare.
 

Proque terminos sacre, nomines del ferias religiose e altere, designationes de movimentos, eras, doctrinas, etc. poterea esser considerate como nomines proprie o commun, illos es scribite con majuscula o non, dependente del signification intendite.
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Le romanticismo de Hollywood es subinde insipide. Le philosophia del Romanticismo cerca le reunion de scientia e religion.

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Grammar
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Spelling and Pronunciation
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§ 1. The LETTERS used are the conventional twenty-six letters of the Roman alphabet. There are no extra signs and symbols to indicate stress and pronunciation.

§ 2. The NORM OF PRONUNCIATION is "continental." The sound values of the various letters are fluid within type limits. They may be naturally influenced by neighboring sounds as also by native habits of individual speakers. For instance, the sound of u- described in the phrase, "like u in 'plural' "-- may well be pronounced like oo in 'good' or in 'loom' but not like u in 'stutter' or in French 'lune'.
 

§ 3. The tendency of English speakers to obscure unstressed vowels, making them all sound like a in 'China,' should be guarded against. This applies particularly to final e. No sound, final or otherwise, unstressed or stressed, should be unduly slurred over.
 

§ 4. The normal English pronunciation agrees with that used in the Interlingua for the letters b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, ph, qu, v, w, and z. The remaining letters are covered by the following rules and observations:

a is always pronounced like a in English 'father';

c before e, i, y is pronounced like ts in 'hats' (or, optionally, like c in 'city'); otherwise like c in 'cats'; ch like ch in 'echo. chrome';
 
 

e always like e in 'met' or, better, like é in French 'risqué.'

g like g in 'good';

h as in English (or, optionally, silent); after r and t, silent;

i normally like i in 'machine'; when unstressed before a vowel, like in 'onion' or in 'phob/a'); e.g. bile, biliose, varie;
 

j like z in 'azure' (or, optionally, like g in 'gem' or like y in 'yes');
 

o always like o in 'obey';

r like rr in 'merry' or, better, like r in Spanish 'caro';

s like s in 'stay'; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like s in 'these'); e.g. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;

t as in English; ti before vowels, unless stressed or preceded by s, like tsy in 'he gets you' (or, optionally, like sy in 'we pass you' or like ty in 'we let you'); e.g. actor, garantia, question, but action, reverentia;
 

u normally like u in 'plural'; when unstressed before a vowel, like u in 'persuade' or in 'superfluous'; e.g. plural, persuader, superflue;

x like x in 'fox'; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like x in 'exact');
 

y unstressed before vowels, like y i,n 'yes'; otherwise like i in 'machine'; e.g. Yugoslavia, typo.

§ 5. In DIPHTHONGS the vowels retain their independent sound values. The diphthong ai is pronounced as in 'kaiser,' au as in 'kraut.' Stressed e and i are separated by a syllabic break from a following a, e, o; e.g. mie, io, spondeo, via, bastardia. Unstressed i and u turn into semiconsonants before a following vowel; e.g. Bulgaria, filatorio, persuader.
 

§ 6. DOUBLE CONSONANTS merge in pronunciation. The double consonant ss is always voiceless like ss in 'miss.' The sounds of g and k assimilate a preceding n as in English. Note that the double consonant cc is spelled c at the end of a word (siccar but sic).
 

§ 7. Pronunciations deviating from these norms are indicated in the Interlingua-English Dictionary by a system of respelling in which the letters have the same sound values as in Interlingua. The digraph ch stands frequently for the sound of sh in 'English' and is respelled as sh; e.g. choc (sh-). The combination gi often represents the sound of z in 'azure' and is respelled as j; e.g. avantagiose (-ajo-). Simple g has this sound and hence this respelling in the suffix -age; e.g. avantage (-aje).

§ 8. On orthographic changes in derivation, see § 137 below.

§ 9. Unassimilated "GUEST WORDS," that is, foreign or borrowed words which are identified in the Interlingua-English Dictionary as to their origin, retain the pronunciation and spelling of the language of origin. The original diacritical signs are omitted when the resulting simplified spelling suffices to suggest the intended pronunciation; e.g. defaite for French défaite, but kümmel as in German.
 

§ 10. The main STRESS is normally on the vowel before the last consonant. The plural ending does not change the original stress of the word. Adjectives and nouns ending in -le, -ne, and -re preceded by a vowel have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. fragile, ordine, tempore. In words formed with the suffixes -ic, -ica, -ico, -ide, -ido, -ula, and -ulo, the stress falls on the syllable preceding the suffix. The suffixes -ific and -ifico are stressed on the first i.

Deviations from this stress system are covered in the Interlingua-English Dictionary by respelling with stress marks. Most of these deviations might be covered by additional descriptive rules. For instance, the suffixes -issim-, -esim-, -ifer-, and -olog- are stressed on the first vowel. The suffixes -in and -erin, in so far as they correspond to English -y and -ery, are stressed on the vowel i; etc.
 

Note: Words without consonant or without a vowel before the last consonant are stressed of necessity on the first vowel; e.g. io, via, and certain present-tense forms, as strue, crea, etc. But construe, procrea, etc. and also diminue, substitue, etc. follow the standard rule and have the stress on the vowel before the last consonant.

§ 11. The importance of stress regularity should not be exaggerated. The effort involved in acquiring an unfamiliar stress for an otherwise familiar word seems often inordinate. This does not, of course, imply that Interlingua words may be stressed completely at random but merely that a word like kilometro remains the same international word whether native habits cause a speaker to stress it on the second or on the third syllable.
 

§ 12. Native habits may likewise be allowed to prevail in questions of INTONATION, SOUND DURATION, and the like. It is suggested, however, that the sequence of a final and an initial vowel, both unstressed and not separated by a pause in intonation, be pronounced as a combined glide; e.g. le alte Ural almost as though it had the four syllables le-ál-teu-rál.
 

§ 13. SYLLABIFICATION follows pronunciation. Single consonants, except x, belong with the following syllable. Consonant groups are divided but l and r must not be separated from preceding b, c, ch, d, f, g, p, ph, t, th, and v. The combinations qu, gu, su behave like single consonants.

§ 14. CAPITALIZATION differs from English usage in that within the sentence upper-case initials occur exclusively with proper names but not with derivatives from them.
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In Francia le franceses parla francese ab le initio de lor vita 'In France the French talk French from the start of their lives'

Le piscatores del Mar Morte cape haringos salate 'The fishermen on the Dead Sea catch salt herrings'

Le ver stilo shakespearean se trova solmente in Shakespeare 'The true Shakespearean style is found only in Shakespeare'

Since sacred terms, the names of religious and other holidays, designations of movements, eras, doctrines, etc. may be considered proper or common names, they are capitalized or not, depending on the meaning intended.

---
Le romanticismo de Hollywood es subinde insipide 'The romanticism of Hollywood is often insipid'
Le philosophia del Romanticismo cerca le reunion de scientia e religion 'The philosophy of Romanticism seeks the reunion of science and religion'

-----------------------
Orthographia collateral
-----------------------

§15 Le regulas sequente de ORTHOGRAPHIA COLLATERAL, non observate in le Interlingua- English Dictionary, forni un systema simplificate de position equal a illo que es describite in le paragraphos precedente. Tote le punctos non specificamente coperite infra debe esser retenite inalterate; assi per exemplo le tractamento del vocabulos hospite non-assimilate cuje orthographia remane como usate in le Interlingua- English Dictionary.

(a) Litteras duple que representa un consonante singule es simplificate con le exception de -ss. Nota que le gruppo -cc ante -e, -i, e -y non representa un consonante singule; p.ex. eclesia, aliterar, aducer, interogar (pro ecclesia, alliterar, adducer, interrogar); sed massa, transsubstantiation, accidente.

(b) Le vocal -y es reimplaciate per -i; p.ex. tirano (pro tyranno). Le semiconsonante -y remane inalterate; p.ex. yak.

(c) Le digrapho -ph es reimplaciate per -f; p.ex. fonetic, emfatic (pro phonetic, emphatic).

(d) Le digrapho -ch, representante le sono -k, es retenite solo ante -e e -i. In altere partes illo es reimplaciate per -c. P.ex. cloric (pro chloric), Cristo (pro Christo) sed chimeric.

(e) Le -h silente post -r e -t es omittite; p.ex. retoric (pro rhetoric), patetic (pro pathetic).

(f) Le littera -j reimplacia -g e -gi pro representar le sono de -z in anglese {azure}; p.ex. sajo (pro sagio).

(g) Le suffixo -age (etiam le gruppo sonic -age al fin de un parola ubi illo non es un suffixo) es reimplaciate per le forma -aje; p.ex. saje, coraje (pro sage, corage). Le suffixo -isar es reimplaciate per le forma -izar. Su derivatos es equalmente scribite per -z. P.ex. civilizar, civilization (pro civilisar, civilisation).

(h) Le -e final es omittite post -t precedite per un vocal excepte in parolas que ha le accento super le tertie syllaba ab le fin; p.ex. animat, brevitat (pro animate, brevitate), sed composite. Iste regula etiam se applica pro -e final post -n, -l, e -r quando iste consonantes es le orthographia collateral pro -nn, -ll, e -rr; p.ex. peren, bel, mel, il, bizar (pro perenne, belle, melle, ille, bizarre). Nota: Le formas del tempore presente e imperative non es afficite per iste regula; pote, permite, etc. retene lor -e final.

----------------------
Collateral orthography
----------------------

§ 15. COLLATERAL ORTHOGRAPHY. -- The following rules, not observed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary, yield a simplified system of equal standing with that outlined in the preceding paragraphs. All points not specifically covered below are to be kept unchanged; so for instance the treatment of unassimilated guest words whose orthography remains that used in the Interlingua-English Dictionary.
 

(a) Double letters representing a single consonant are simplified with the exception of ss. Note that the group cc before e, i, and y does not represent a single consonant. E.g. eclesia, aliterar, aducer, interogar (for ecclesia, alliterar, adducer, interrogar) but massa, transsubstantiation, accidente.

(b) The vowel y is replaced by i; e.g. tirano (for tyranno). The semi-consonant y remains unchanged; e.g. yak.

(c) The digraph ph is replaced by f; e.g. fonetic, emfatic (for phonetic, emphatic).

(d) The digraph ch, representing the sound of k, is kept only before e and i. Elsewhere it is replaced by c. E.g. cloric, Cristo (for chloric, Christo) but chimetic.

(e) The silent h after r and t is omitted; e.g. retoric, patetic (for rhetoric, pathetic).
 

(f) The letter j replaces g and gi to represent the sound of z in 'azure.' E.g. sajo (for sagio).

(g) The suffix -age (also the sound group -age at the end of a word where it is not a suffix) is replaced by the form -aje; e.g. saje, coraje (for sage, corage). The suffix -isar is replaced by the form -izar. Its derivatives are likewise spelled with z. E.g. civilizar, civilization (for civilisar, civilisation).

(h) Final e is dropped after t preceded by a vowel except in words which have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. animat, brevitat (for animate, brevitate) but composite. This rule applies likewise to final e after n, l, and r when these consonants are the collateral spelling for nn, ll, and rr; e.g. peren, bel, mel, il, bizar (for perenne, belle, melle, ille, bizarre). Note: Present-tense and imperative forms are not affected by this rule; pote, permite, etc. retain their final -e.

-----------
Punctuation
-----------

§16 Le PUNCTUATION reflecte le rhythmo del phrase parlate e obedi nulle regulas absolute. Le signos del punctuation e lor valores general es le mesmes como in anglese. Expressiones interpolate e propositiones relative e conjunctional es demarcate per commas a minus que le rhythmo intendite permitte nulle pausa. In enumerationes de plus que duo parolas o contextos, le uso de e o o ante le ultime non elimina le comma.
---
Le homine que vos vide es mi patre.

Le homine, que se considera como le corona del creation, pare plus tosto facite de metallo blanc que de auro.
 
 

Le asino, le can, e le catto formava un pedestallo pro le gallo.
 

Es isto le canto del asino, del can, del catto, o del gallo?
 

Le Statos Unite, Anglaterra e su imperio, e Russia es tres del grande potentias.
 
 

Ille es, pro exprimer lo cortesemente, pauco intelligente.

-----------
Punctuation
-----------

§ 16. PUNCTUATION reflects the rhythm of the spoken sentence and obeys no absolute rules. The signs of punctuation and their general values are the same as in English. Interpolated phrases and relative and conjunctional clauses are enclosed in commas unless the intended rhythm permits no break. In enumerations of more than two items, the use of e 'and' or o 'or' before the last item does not eliminate the comma.
---
Le homine que vos vide es mi patre 'The man you see is my father'

Le homine, que se considera como le corona del creation, pare plus tosto facite de metallo blanc que de auro 'Man, who considers himself the crown of creation, seems rather to be made of babbitt than of gold'

Le asino, le can, e le catto formava un pedestallo pro le gallo 'The donkey, the dog, and the cat formed a pedestal for the rooster'

Es isto le canto del asino, del can, del catto, o del gallo? 'Is this the song of the donkey, the dog, the cat, or the rooster?'

Le Statos Unite, Anglaterra e su imperio, e Russia es tres del grande potentias 'The United States, England and its empire, and Russia are three of the great powers'

Ille es, pro exprimer lo cortesemente, pauco intelligente 'He is, to put it politely, not very intelligent'

===================
Partes del discurso
===================
---------
Articulos
---------
-----------------
Articulo definite
-----------------

§17 Le ARTICULO DEFINITE es le. Illo exhibi nulle accordo in forma con le substantivo sequente. Un preposition a o de precedente se combina con le articulo le in le formas al e del.

le patre le matre le infante le patres del patre al matre le matre del infantes



§18 Le articulo definite es usate in toto como in anglese.

Io ama infantes.
Io ama le infantes.
Ubi pote io trovar flores?
Ubi pote io trovar le flores?
 
 

Le articulo definite non necessarimente debe esser omittite con titulos que precede nomines proprie, excepte in discurso directe. Illo non debe esser omittite con nomines abstracte que representa le classe integre, specie, etc.

le professor e le seniora Alicuno ...
 

Da me le libertate o le morte!
 

Io es felice de vider vos, doctor Alicuno.
 

Illa adora le homine e le animal.

===============
Parts of Speech
===============
-------
ARTICLE
-------
----------------
Definite article
----------------

§ 17. The DEFINITE ARTICLE is le 'the.' It shows no agreement in form with the following noun. A preceding preposition a or de fuses with the article le in the forms al and del.
 

le patre 'the father' le matre 'the mother' le infante 'the child' le patres 'the fathers' del patre al matre 'from the father to the mother' le matre del infantes 'the mother of the children'

§ I8. The definite article is used on the whole as in English.

'I like children' Io ama infantes
'I like the children' Io ama le infantes
'Where can I find flowers?' Ubi pote io trovar flores?
'Where can I find the flowers?' Ubi pote io trovar le flores?

The definite article need not be omitted with titles preceding proper names, except in direct address. It must not be omitted with abstract nouns representing the entire class, species, etc.

'Professor and Mrs. Somebody' le professor e le seniora Alicuno

'Give me liberty or give me death' Da me le libertate o le morte

'I am happy to see you, Dr. Somebody' Io es felice de vider vos, doctor Alicuno

'She adores man and beast' Illa adora le homine e le animal

-------------------
Articulo indefinite
-------------------
§19 Le ARTICULO INDEFINITE es un. Como le articulo definite, illo non exhibi accordo in forma con le substantivo sequente. Illo es identic con le numeral un.

un patre
un matre
un infante
un vacca

§20 Le articulo indefinite es usate como in anglese.

§21 Le ARTICULO DEFINITE e le INDEFINITE ambes ha in commun con le adjectivos le possibilitate de uso pronominal. Vide §§38-41.
---
mi amico e le de mi fratre
 

mi fratre e un de mi amicos ...
 

Io parla duo linguas; un al domo, un altere al officina; le un es francese, le altere anglese.


Io parla duo linguas; le de mi familia e le de mi ambiente.

Quando usate como pronomines, le articulos pote prender le formas plural les e unes. Le secunde es sovente rendite in anglese como {some}.
---
le opiniones de mi patre e les de mi matre

Nostre amicos veni: les de mi fratre, un de mi soror, e unes del amicos de nostre parentes.



In uso pronominal le articulos es capabile de facer un distinction inter antecedentes masculin e feminin, le e la, uno e una, le quales ha in torno formas plural (les, las, unos, unas). Le distinction non ha necessitate de esser observate quando le contexto es clar sin illo.

Mi fratre e mi soror invita lor melior amicos; le de mi fratre ama la de mi soror.



Mi fratre e mi soror ha multe amicos. Uno de mi fratre ama una de mi soror.


mi amicos, unos de mi fratre, e las de mi soror


Nota que le articulo definite in uso pronominal ha le forma masculin le, le forma feminin la, con le vocales final characteristic (-e, -a) que appare de novo con certe pronomines (vide §§54, 58, 78) durante que le articulo indefinite in uso pronominal ha le distinction masculin-feminin uno-una con le vocales final (-o, -a) que es incontrate con substantivos (vide §24).

Le articulo definite ha un forma pronominal neutre lo, que occurre specialmente in le expression lo que. Su plural, rarmente requirite, es naturalmente los.
---
Lo que io pensa

Io non sape lo que ille pensa.

------------------
Indefinite article
------------------
§ 19. The INDEFINITE ARTICLE is un 'a' or 'an.' Like the definite article it shows no agreement in form with the following noun. It is identical with the numeral un 'one.'

un patre 'a father, one father'
un matre 'a mother, one mother'
un infante 'a child, one child'
un vacca 'a cow, one cow'

§ 20. The indefinite article is used as in English.

§ 21. Both the DEFINITE and the INDEFINITE ARTICLES share with adjectives the possibility of pronominal use. See §§ 38-41 below.
---
mi amico e le de mi fratre 'my friend and the [friend] of my brother'

mi fratre e un de mi amicos 'my brother and one of my friends'

Io parla duo linguas; un al domo, un altere al officina; le un es francese, le altere anglese 'I speak two languages; one at home, another at the shop; the one is French, the other English'

Io parla duo linguas; le de mi familia e le de mi ambiente 'I speak two languages; that of my family and that of my environment'

When used as pronouns, the articles can take the plural forms les and unes. The latter is often to be rendered as 'some.'
---
le opiniones de mi patre e les de mi matre 'the views of my father and those of my mother'

Nostre amicos veni: les de mi fratre, un de mi soror, e unes del amicos de nostre parentes 'Our friends are coming: those of my brother, one of my sister's, and some of the friends of our parents'

In pronominal use the articles are capable of making a distinetion between male and female antecedents, le and la, uno and una, all of which have in turn plural forms. The distinction need not be observed when the context is clear without it.

Mi fratre e mi soror invita lor melior amicos; le de mi fratre ama la de mi soror 'My brother and sister invite their best friends; my brother's [best friend] loves my sister's [best friend]'

Mi fratre e mi soror ha multe amicos. Uno de mi fratre ama una de mi soror 'My brother and my sister have many friends. One of my brother's [friends] loves one of my sister's [friends]'

mi amicos, unos de mi fratre, e las de mi soror 'my friends, some of my brother's [boy friends], and the girl friends of my sister'

Note that the definite article in pronominal use has the male form le, the female form la, with characteristic final vowels appearing again with certain pronouns (see §§ 54, 58, 78 below) while the indefinite article in pronominal use has the male-female distinction uno-una with final vowels to be encountered with nouns (see § 24 below).
 

The definite article has a neuter pronominal form lo which occurs especially in the phrase lo que 'that which, what.' Its plural, rarely needed, is of course los.

Lo que io pensa 'what I think'

Io non sape lo que ille pensa 'I don't know what he thinks'

============
Substantivos
============

§22 Como in anglese, le substantivos non pote esser identificate per un tracto constante e specific de lor formas. Le grande majoritate del substantivos fini in un del vocales -a, -o, -e, o le consonantes -l, -n, -r. Sed iste terminationes occurre etiam con altere vocabulos. Il ha, de novo como in anglese, un numero de suffixos que occurre solmente con substantivos. Ultra isto le substantivos es recognoscite per le function que illos representa in un phrase.

§23 Il ha nulle GENERE GRAMMATIC. Le terminationes del substantivos ha nulle valores grammatic e pote esser considerate accidental.
---
tabula, pagina, ...
homine, tempore, libertate, aere, ...
uso, fructo, ...
uxor, ...
fun, galon, generation, ...
gas, ...
roc, ...






§24 Quando le termination -o occurre - e illo occurre frequentemente - in un parola que designa un esser MASCULIN, le correspondente FEMININ pote esser representate per le mesme parola con le termination substituite per -a. Le regula etiam functiona in ordine reverse.

Parola original (IED) Sexo opposite precisate masculin (...o) feminin (...a) asino asina missionario missionaria americano americana feminin (...a) masculin (...o) oca oco ciconia ciconio

Nota: Le inferentia que un parola como 'musca' permitte le uso del forma masculin 'musco' es si justificate e etiam tanto incongrue como le suggestion que le anglese pote formar le parola {he-fly}. Concernente le formation del substantivos feminin per le suffixos -essa e -trice, vide §§138, 152.

====
NOUN
====

§ 22. As in English, nouns cannot be identified by a constant and specific feature of their forms. The great majority of nouns end in one of the vowels a, o, e, or the consonants I, n, r. But these terminations occur with other words too. There are, again as in English, a number of suffixes which occur only with nouns. Otherwise nouns are recognized by the function they perform in a sentence.
 
 

§ 23. There is no GRAMMATICAL GENDER. The terminations of nouns have no grammatical value and may be considered accidental.

tabula 'table'
pagina 'page'
homine 'man, human being'
tempore 'time'
uso 'use'
fructo 'fruit'
uxor 'wife'
fun 'rope'
galon 'braid, galloon'
libertate 'liberty'
generation 'generation'
gas 'gas'
roc 'rook, castle'

§ 24. When the termination o occurs – as it frequently does – in a word designating a MALE being, the corresponding FEMALE can be represented by the same word with the substituted ending a. The rule works also in reverse order.

asino 'donkey'; hence: asina 'female donkey' missionario 'missionary'; hence: missionaria 'woman missionary' americano 'American'; hence: americana 'American (girl or woman)' oca 'goose'; hence: oco 'gander' ciconia 'stork'; hence: ciconio '(male) stork'

Note: The inference that a word like musca 'fly' would permit the use of the male form musco is as justified and also as incongruous as the suggestion that English can form the word 'he-fly.'--On the formation of female nouns by means of the suffixes -essa and -trice, see §§ 138, 152 below.

--------
Plurales
--------

§25 Le PLURAL es formate per le addition de -s o - post un consonante - de -es. Un -c final cambia ante -es a -ch; p.ex.

------
Plural
------

§ 25. The PLURAL is formed by the addition of s or – after a consonant – of es. Final c changes before es to ch.

                                          singular    plural (...s)
                                          --------    -------------
                                          tabula      tabulas
                                          pagina      paginas
                                          homine      homines
                                          aere        aeres
                                          tempore     tempores
                                          libertate   libertates
                                          uso         usos
                                          fructo      fructos
                                          singular    plural (...es)
                                          uxor        uxores
                                          fun         funes
                                          galon       galones
                                          generation  generationes
                                          gas         gases

                                          singular    plural (...hes)
                                          --------    ---------------
                                          roc         roches
Plurales irregular occurre solmente in 
"vocabulos hospite" le quales ha retenite 
lor identitate estranier.

singular     plural
--------     -----------------------
le test      le tests [Anglese]
le lied      le lieder [Germano]
le addendum  le addenda [Neo-latino]
le Abruzzi   [Italiano]

Vocabulos docte que termina in -is forma
lor plural como si le singular habeva un
-e final:
genesis (o genese) -> geneses;
hepatitis -> hepatites.

Compositos singular con secunde
elementos in plural non ha plurales
distincte. 

singular         plural
---------------  ----------------
un guardacostas  duo guardacostas
un rumpenuces    duo rumpenuces
un paracolpos    duo paracolpos

§26 Il non ha FORMAS DE CASO. Le functiones 
del dativo e genitivo in altere linguas es
representate per prepositiones.

a Deo ...

Ille invia flores a su matre.


Nos paga taxas al governamento.


   
de Deo ...

Illa recipe le flores de su filio.
le debitas del governamento ...

§27 Pro le formation de substantivos
como etiam de derivatos de illos, vide
§§138, 139, 140, 141, 152, 154.

§28 Le modo in que le substantivos es
usate in le phrase non differe
considerabilemente del normas anglese.
Nota, totevia, que le uso quasi
illimitate de SUBSTANTIVOS CON
FUNCTIONES ADJECTIVE es un tracto
anglese que Interlingua non possede.

tempore hibernal,
tempore de hiberno: winter weather
laboratorio de recerca: research laboratory
mantello de autumno, mantello pro autumno:
  fall coat 
guarda de nocte: night watchman
bottilia de lacte, bottilia a lacte: 
milk bottle
canto de nocte, canto nocturne: night song



--------------- 
Nomines proprie 
---------------

§29 NOMINES PROPRIE que functiona in
anglese como adjectivos - como p.ex. in
{Diesel engine}, {Geiger counter}, 
etc. - remane nomines proprie
non-modificate in le Interlingua e es
precedite per le substantivo que illos
qualifica. Le patrono usate es le mesme
que es sequite in anglese in le caso del
titulos : {Doctor Diesel}, {Professor
Diesel}, {motor Diesel}, etc. Le nomines
proprie non prende le -s plural. 

singular plural --------------- ------------------ contator Geiger contatores Geiger motor Diesel motores Diesel strato Heaviside stratos Heaviside radio Röntgen radios Röntgen ---------- Apposition ---------- §30 Il ha un uso multo libere del APPOSITION de que un del elementos sovente corresponde a un substantivo anglese con functiones adjective. foresta virgine: virgin forest arbore nano: dwarf tree wagon restaurante: dining car nave domo: house boat homine machina: human machine Le uso de apposition es multo frequente con substantivos de agentes e de alteres similar le quales assi deveni indistinguibile de adjectivos. mi amico mazdaista: my Mazdaist friend apparato generator: generating device uxor puera: child wife In le plural le appositivo pote prender un -s. Sin illo le appositivo es plus clarmente adjectival. On poterea dicer: uxor puera -> uxores pueras, sed apparato generator -> apparatos generator, foresta virgine -> forestas virgine, etc. Quando le appositivo ha formas distincte pro masculin e feminin, lor uso es governate per le facto de sexo. mi amico cantator e mi amica cantatrice: my singer friend (m) and my singer friend (f)

Irregular plurals occur only in "guest words" which have retained their foreign identity.



le test: le tests [English]
le lied: le lieder [German]
le addendum: le addenda [Neo-Latin]
Abruzzi [Italian]

Learned terms ending in -is form their plural as though the singular had a final -e: genesis (or genese) > geneses; hepatitis > hepatites.
 
 

Singular compounds with second elements in the plural have no distinct plural.
 
 
 

un guardacostas: duo guardacostas (coastguard)
un rumpenuces: duo rumpenuces (nutcracker)
un paracolpos: duo paracolpos (bumper)

§ 26. There are no CASE FORMS. The functions of the genitive and dative in other languages are taken over by prepositions.

a Deo 'God' to God'

Ille invia flores a su matre 'He sends his mother flowers, He sends flowers to his mother'

Nos paga taxas al governamento 'We pay the government tax money, We pay tax money to the government'
le debitas del governamento 'the government's debts, the debts of the government'

de Deo 'God's, of God'

Illa recipe le flores de su filio 'She receives her son's flowers'

§ 27. On the formation of nouns as well as of derivatives from them, see §§ 138-141, 152, 154 below.

§ 28. The way nouns are used in the sentence does not differ materially from English norms. Note, however, that the almost unlimited use of NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVAL FUNCTIONS is an English trait not shared by Interlingua.
 
 

'winter weather' (= wintry weather, weather of winter) tempore hibernal, tempore de hiberno
'research laboratory' (= laboratory of research) laboratorio de recerca
'fall coat' (= coat of fall, coat for fall) mantello de autumno, mantello pro autumno 'night watchman' (-- watchman of night) guarda de nocte
'milk bottle' (= bottle of milk, bottle for milk) bottilia de lacte, bottilia a lacte
'night song' (= song of night, nocturnal song) canto de nocte, canto nocturne

------------
Proper nouns
------------

§ 29. PROPER NOUNS functioning in English as adjectives – as e.g. in 'Diesel engine,' 'Geiger counter,' etc. – remain unmodified proper nouns in the Interlingua and are preceded by the noun they qualify in English. The pattern used is that followed in English in the case of titles: Doctor Diesel, Professor Diesel, engine Diesel; etc. The proper names take no plural -s.
 
 
 
 

'Geiger counter(s)' contator Geiger, contatores Geiger 'Diesel engine(s)' motor Diesel, motores Diesel 'Roentgen rays' radios Röntgen 'Heaviside layer' strato Heaviside
 

----------
Apposition
----------

§ 30. There is a very free use of APPOSITION with one member often cor- responding to an English noun with adjectival functions.
 

foresta virgine 'virgin forest' arbore nano 'dwarf tree' wagon restaurante 'dining car' nave domo 'house boat' homine machina 'human machine'
 

The use of apposition is very frequent with nouns of agents and the like which thus become indistinguishable from adjectives.
 

mi amico mazdaista 'my Mazdaist friend' apparato generator 'generating device' uxor puera 'child wife'

In the plural the appositive may take an -s. Without it the appositive is more clearly adjectival. One would say:

uxores pueras but apparatos generator, forestas virgine, etc.
 
 
 
 

When the appositive has distinct forms for male and female, their use is governed by the fact of sex.

mi amico cantator e mi amica cantatrice 'my singer friend (masc. and my singer friend (fem.)'

==========
ADJECTIVOS
==========

§31 Adjectivos fini in un vocal o un consonante. Le prime gruppo fini quasi sin exception in -e, e le secunde in un del consonantes -l, -n, -r, -c. Considerante que altere parolas pote haber le mesme desinentias, istos non identifica adjectivos, le quales pote esser recognoscite per le function que illos exeque in un phrase o alicun vices per un suffixo le qual per hasardo occurre con nulle altere parte del discurso.

delicate, parve, ...
equal, ...
american, dan, ...
par, ...
cyclic, ...
blau, ...

§32 Il ha nulle INFLEXION o ACCORDO adjectival.

=========
ADJECTIVE
=========

§ 31. Adjectives end in a vowel or a consonant. The former group ends almost without exception in e, the latter in one of the consonants 1, n, r, c. Since other words can have the same endings, these do not identify adjectives, which can only be spotted by the function they perform in a sentence or at times by a suffix which happens to occur with no other part of speech.
 

delicate 'delicate' american 'American' parve 'small' dan 'Danish' blau 'blue' par 'even' equal 'equal' cyclic 'cyclic'
 
 
 

§ 32. There is no adjectival INFLECTION or AGREEMENT.

Le parve femina es belle 'The little woman is beautiful' (Le) parve feminas es belle '(The) little women are beautiful' (Le) parve homines es belle '(The) little men are handsome' Le parve libro es belle 'The little book is beautiful'
§33 Adjectivos placiate immediatemente presso un substantivo pote PRECEDER O SEQUER lo. Le secunde position es le plus frequente e ergo normal. Adjectivos que precede un substantivo tende a suggerer que lo que illos exprime es un tracto essential del concepto substantive e non mermente un tracto que distingue le representante presente del concepto substantive ab alteres.

le lingua international e le linguas national ...
 

Su integre vita esseva ric in viages longe e breve
 

Adjectivos longe debe rarmente esser permittite de preceder un substantivo. Adjectivos breve como bon, alte, parve, grande, belle, breve, longe, etc., pote preceder pro le sol objectivo del rhythmo o a causa de preferentia personal. Le duo positiones possibile del adjectivo nunquam pote exprimer duo significationes distincte.

Adjectivos numeral (cardinal como etiam ordinal) precede le substantivo le qual illos qualifica.

-------------------------
Comparation de adjectivos
-------------------------

§34 Grados de COMPARATION es exprimite per le adverbios plus e minus.

§ 33. Adjectives placed next to a noun can either PRECEDE OR FOLLOW. The latter position is more frequent and hence normal. Adjectives preceding a noun tend to suggest that what they express is an essential feature of the noun concept and not merely a feature distinguishing the present representative of the noun concept from others.

le lingua international e le linguas national 'the international language and the national languages'

Su integre vita esseva ric in viages longe e breve 'His whole life was rich in long and short trips'

Long adjectives should rarely be allowed to precede a noun. Brief adjectives like bon, alte, parve, grande, belle, breve, longe, etc., may precede merely for rhythm's sake or as a matter of personal preference. The two possible positions of the adjective cannot ever express two distinct meanings.

Numeral adjectives (cardinals as well as ordinals) precede the noun they qualify.

------------------------
Comparison of adjectives
------------------------

§ 34. Degrees of COMPARISON are expressed by means of the adverbs plus and minus.

                       adjectivo     comparativo         superlativo
                       ------------  ------------------  ---------------------
                       bon           plus bon            le plus bon
                       bon           minus bon           le minus bon
                       interessante  plus interessante   le plus interessante
                       interessante  minus interessante  le minus interessante
                       ------------  ------------------  ---------------------
                       good          better              best
                       good          less good           least good
In casos quando le comparativo es precedite per le articulo definite, illo coincide con le superlativo. Le exemplos infra (§35) monstra que isto involve nulle confusion.

§35 Comparation de equalitate es exprimite per tanto...como, o si...como. Le particula post le comparativo es que.

Le formas de comparativo e superlativo que seque le substantivo repete le articulo definite precedente - in caso que il ha un tal.

Un homine es tanto bon como un altere e frequentemente etiam un grande portion plus bon.
 
 

Iste historia es le minus interessante que io ha legite.

Iste historia es le minus interessante del duo.
 

Del duo summas paga le plus parve.

Chesterlucks es plus blande.

Le presidente del committee ajorna omne le questiones le plus urgente.
 

Illa ha le plus dulce temperamento e le ideas le plus naive.
 

§36 Le idea del si-nominate SUPERLATIVO ABSOLUTE pote esser exprimite como in anglese per constructiones varie:
le plus interessante, multo interessante, extrememente interessante, terribilemente interessante, etc.

Un medio usate specificamente pro le intentos del superlativo absolute es le suffixo -issime.

Su replica esseva un "non" multo emphatic.

Su replica esseva un emphatichissime "non."

Ille parla in un maniera terribilemente interessante.

§37 Le particulas plus e minus, que es usate pro exprimer grados de comparation, mesme es exemplos de adverbios que admitte nulle formas regular de comparation (vide §44 infra), sed a vices in se pote exprimer un "grado comparative." Similarmente, il ha in le vocabulario de Interlingua alicun adjectivos que on pote reguardar como synonymos irregular de certe formas comparative e superlative.


adjectivo   comparativo   superlativo
---------   -----------   -------------
parve       plus parve    le plus parve
minor       le minor      minime
magne       plus magne    le plus magne
major       le major      maxime
bon         plus bon      le plus bon
melior      le melior     optime
mal         plus mal      le plus mal
pejor       le pejor      pessime

 
 

§38 In theoria, CATA ADJECTIVO POTE SERVIR COMO UN PRONOMINE. Le substantivo que illo representa es sia alicuno exprimite in le passage precedente, sia un notion plus o minus definite in le mente del parlator.

Le puero ha un conilio mascule e duo conilias. Le mascule pare assatis grasse pro esser mangiate.
 

A causa de su eterne mal humor nos le appella "le acre."

In le prime exemplo, 'le mascule' representa 'le conilio mascule' ; in le secunde exemplo, 'le acre' suggere un esser human masculin sed non un substantivo specific como homine, puero, maestro, etc. In le casos del secunde sorta, il pote esser preferibile parlar de "adjectivos usate como substantivos," o "adjectivos substantivate" plus tosto que de "adjectivos usate como pronomines." Le adjectivos usate como substantivos include etiam abstractiones del sorta 'le bon', 'le ver', 'le belle' in le senso de bonitate, veritate, beltate.

§39 Adjectivos usate como pronomines o substantivos se comporta grammaticamente como substantivos ordinari e pote esser pluralisate.

Le puero ha quatro conilios, duo mascules e duo feminines.

A causa de lor eterne mal humor nos les appella "le acres."
 

§40 Numerose adjectivos listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary corresponde a entratas substantive parallel.

adjectivo       substantivo
--------------  -------------------------
bon             bono   
auguste         augusto; Augusto; Augusta
characteristic  characteristica
chromatic       chromatica
indonesian      indonesiano
natural         natural
provincial      provincial
technic         technico; technica
automobile      automobile
ambiente        ambiente
alte            alto
belligerente    belligerente
comestibile     comestibiles
combustibile    combustibile
composite       composito

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Le possibilitate de assi cambiar adjectivos in substantivos es limitate per nihil altere que senso commun. Si non alteremente crystallisate per le usage, un adjectivo usate como un substantivo de plen status (non simplemente como un pronomine pro un substantivo mentionate previemente) exprime sia le notion abstracte del qualitate representate per le adjectivo - p.ex. le bon, le belle, le sublime - sia un cosa o persona characterisate per lo que le adjectivo exprime - p.ex. le car, le amate, le previe, le ferite. Quando illos exprime un qualitate abstracte e quando illos representa un esser masculin, le adjectivos cambiate a substantivos o assume le desinentia vocal -o, o remane inalterate. Quando illos representa esseres feminin, illos assume le desinentia -a, o remane inalterate.

Le cambio al desinentias vocal -o e -a sub le conditiones exprimite es le norma. Le adjectivos que non seque ille norma es listate in §41 infra. Il debe esser notate, totevia,

(a) que le lista es exhaustive e assi include un bon numero de adjectivos pro le quales le distinction de masculin e feminin ha nulle significantia practic, e

(b) que le lista es un "lista del purista" assi que le uso erronee del desinentias -o e -a con su objectos non pote esser considerate un cosa seriose.

§41 Adjectivos que non pote, quando usate como substantivos, assumer formas distincte in -o e -a ben que illos es capace de, si le senso lo permitte, assumer le desinentia plural include le sequentes:

(a) omne adjectivos que fini in -ce e -u; p.ex.
rapace, precoce, dulce, ...
hindu, manchu, blau, ...
etc.;

(b) omne adjectivos cuje thema apparente es sequite per -ese/-ense, -il/-ile, -ior, -nte, si o non iste desinentias es clarmente recognoscite como suffixos; p.ex.
francese, ...
futile, ...
junior, ...
consciente, clemente, ...
etc.;

(c) omne adjectivos que fini in le suffixos -al, -ar, -bile, -oide, -plice; p.ex.
natural, ...
linear, ...
amabile, ...
negroide, ...
duplice, ...
etc.;

(d) le adjectivos:
grande, prode, verde,
folle, molle,
juvene, omne, solemne,
alacre, celebre, celere, mediocre, memore, plure, pubere, ubere, vetere,
necesse,
agreste, forte, quite, triste,
tenue,
breve, grave, leve, suave,
cruel, fidel, qual, tal,
minor, par

(e) omne adjectivos derivate de illos listate supra per prefixos; p.ex.
supernatural, infidel, ... etc.;

(f) le adjectivos del nomines geographic e racial:
caribe,
ethiope,
ligure,
macedone, saxone,
mongol,
moslem,
nomade,
turcoman;

(g) adjectivos grammatic indeclinabile como cata, que, e combinationes con -cunque;

(h) certe adjectivos derivate per un elemento prefixate sed sin un suffixo (vide §164) del substantivos sequente:

substantivo adjectivo
----------- ---------
anno        p.ex. bienne, trienne
caput       p.ex. bicipite, precipite
color       p.ex. incolor, tricolor
corde       p.ex. concorde, discorde
corno       p.ex. bicorne, unicorne
cuspide     p.ex. bicuspide, multicuspide
fin         p.ex. affin, confin
flor        p.ex. multiflor, uniflor
forma       p.ex. multiforme, uniforme
lingua      p.ex. bilingue, crassilingue
remo        p.ex. bireme, trireme

(i) le adjectivos sequente que representa le mesme typo como illos listate sub (h) sed le quales es formationes isolate o non pote esser facilemente recognoscite in lor composition:

enorme, exsangue, illustre, imbecille,
indemne, inerte, infame, inope, insigne,
insomne, semi-somne,
isoscele, macroscele,
multicaule, myope, participe,
commun, immun, impun.

§42 Concernente le formation de adjectivos e etiam del derivatos de illos, vide §§139, 140, 141, 142, 45-47, 152-153.

When the comparative happens to be preceded by the definite article, it coincides with the superlative. The examples below (§ 35) show that this involves no confusion.

§ 35. Comparison of equality is expressed by tanto . . . como or si . . . como 'as . . . as.' The particle after the comparative is que 'than.'

Comparative and superlative forms following the noun repeat the preceding definite article -- provided there is one.

Un homine es tanto ben como un altere e frequentemente etiam un grande portion plus ben 'One man is as good as another and frequently even a great deal better'

Iste historia es le minus interessante que io ha legite 'This story is the least interesting (which) I have read'

Iste historia es le minus interessante del duo 'This story is the less interesting of the two'

Del duo summas paga le plus parve 'Of the two amounts pay the lesser'

Chesterlucks es plus blande 'Chesterlucks are milder'

Le presidente del committee ajorna omne le questiones le plus urgente 'The committee chairman postpones all the most urgent questions'

Illa ha le plus dulce temperamento e le ideas le plus naive 'She has the sweetest disposition and the most naive ideas'

§ 36. The idea of the so-called ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE may be expressed as in English by various constructions:
most interesting, very interesting, extremely interesting, terribly interesting, etc.
 

A device used specifically for purposes of the absolute superlative is the suffix -issime.

Su replica esseva un "non" multo emphatic 'His reply was a very emphatic no'

Su replica esseva un emphatichissime "non" 'His reply was a most emphatic no'

Ille parla in un maniera terribilemente interessante 'He talks in a terribly interesting fashion'

§ 37. The particles plus and minus, which are used to express degrees of comparison, are themselves expressive of the comparative degree of adverbs which admit no regular forms of comparison. See § 44 below. Similarly there are in the Interlingua vocabulary a few adjectives which one may wish to regard as irregular synonyms of certain comparative and superlative forms.
 
 
 

parve : plus parve : le plus parve or minor : le minor or minime 'small: smaller or lesser: smallest or least'

magne: plus magne: le plus magne or major: le major or maxime 'great: greater: greatest'

bon: plus bon: le plus bon or melior: le melior or optime 'good: better: best'

mal: plus mal: le plus mal or pejor: le pejor or pessime 'bad: worse: worst'

§ 38. Theoretically EVERY ADJECTIVE CAN SERVE AS A PRONOUN. The noun it represents may either be one expressed in the preceding passage or it may be a more or less definite notion in the mind of the speaker.

Le puero ha un conilio mascule e duo conilias. Le mascule pare assatis grasse pro esser edite 'The boy has one male rabbit and two she-rabbits. The male (one) seems fat enough to be eaten'

A causa de su eterne mal humor nos appella le "le acre" 'Because of his eternal bad humor we call him "the acrid (one)"'

In the first example, 'the male' stands for 'the male rabbit'; in the second example, 'the acrid one' suggests a male human being but not a specific noun like 'man, boy, teacher, etc.' In instances of the latter kind it may be preferable to speak of "adjectives used as nouns" or "substantivized adjectives" rather than of "adjectives used as pronouns." Adjectives used as nouns include also abstracts of the type 'the good, the true, the beautiful' in the sense of 'goodness, truth, beauty.'
 

§ 39. Adjectives used as pronouns or nouns behave grammatically like ordinary nouns and can be pluralized.

Le puero ha quatro conilios, duo mascules e duo feminines 'The boy has four rabbits, two male and two female ones'

A causa de lor eterne mal humor nos appella le "le acres" 'Because of their eternal bad humor we call them "the acrid (ones)"'

§ 40. Numerous adjectives listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary correspond to parallel noun entries.

ADJECTIVES:       NOUNS:
----------------  ---------------------
bon 'good'        bono 'good (as "the
                  good and the
                  beautiful");
                  good one ( = good
                  man); certificate,
                  coupon'

auguste 'august'  augusto '(the) august
                  (one); (month) of
                  August'
                  Augusto 'August,
                  Augustus'
                  Augusta 'Augusta'

characteristic    characteristica 
'characteristic'  'characteristic 
                  (trait)'

chromatic         chromatica 
'chromatic'       'chromatics'

indonesian        indonesiano 
'Indonesian'      'Indonesian'

natural           natural 'disposition, 
'natural'         temperament'

provincial        provincial 
'provincial'      'provincial'

technic           technico 'technician'
'technical'       technica 'technique; 
                  technology'

automobile        automobile 'automobile'
'self-moving'

ambiente          ambiente 'environment'
'ambient, 
surrounding'

alte 'high'       alto 'top; alto'

belligerente      belligerente 
'belligerent'     'belligerent'

comestibile       comestibiles 'food'
'edible'

combustibile      combustibile 'fuel'
'combustible'

composite         composito 'compound'
'composite'

The possibility of thus turning adjectives into nouns is limited by nothing but common sense. Unless otherwise crystallized by usage, an adjective used as a full-fledged noun (not simply as a pronoun for a noun previously mentioned) expresses either the abstract notion of the quality represented by the adjective -- e.g. the good, the beautiful, the sublime -- or a thing or person characterized by what the adjective expresses -- e.g. the dear, the beloved, the former, the wounded. When they express an abstract quality and when they represent a male being, adjectives turned into nouns either assume the vowel ending o or remain unchanged; when they represent female beings they assume the vowel ending a or remain unchanged.
 

The switch to the vowel endings o and a under the conditions stated is the norm. The adjectives which do not follow that norm are listed below in § 41. It should be noted, however,

(a) that the list is exhaustive and hence includes a good many items for which the distinction of male and female has no practical significance, and

(b) that the list is a "purists' list" so that the mistaken use of the endings o and a with its items cannot be considered a serious matter.

§ 41. Adjectives which cannot, when used as nouns, assume distinct forms in o and a although -- sense permitting -- they are capable of assuming the plural ending, include the following:

(a) all adjectives which end in -ce and -u; e.g. rapace, precoce, dulce, hindu, manchu, blau, etc.;
 
 

(b) all adjectives whose apparent stem is followed by -e(n)se, -il(e), -ior, -nte whether or not these endings are clearly recognizable as suffixes; e.g. futile, junior, consciente, clemente, francese, etc.;
 
 
 

(c) all adjectives ending in the suffixes -al, -ar, -bile, -oide, -plice; e.g. natural, linear, amabile, negroide, duplice, etc.
 
 
 
 
 
 

(d) the adjectives
agreste 'rustic', alacre 'eager', breve 'short', celebre 'famous', celere 'quick', celibe 'unmarried', cruel 'cruel', fidel 'faithful', folle 'bellows', forte 'mad', grande 'big', grave 'heavy', juvene 'young', leve 'light', mediocre 'mediocre', memore 'mindful', minor 'lesser', molle 'soft', necesse 'necessary', omne 'all', par 'even', plure 'several', prode 'valiant', pubere 'pubescent', qual 'which', quite 'quit', solemne 'solemn', suave 'sweet', tal 'such', tenue 'thin', triste 'sad', ubere 'fruitful', verde 'green', vetere 'old'

(e) all adjectives derived from those listed above by prefixes; e.g. supernatural, infidel, etc.;

(f) the geographical and racial name adjectives
caribe, ethiope, ligure, macedone, mongol, moslem, nomade, saxone, turcoman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

(g) indeclinable grammatical adjectives like cata, que, and combinations with -cunque;

(h) certain adjectives derived by means of a prefixed element but without a suffix (see § 164) from the following nouns:
 
 

anno       (e.g. bienne, trienne)
caput      (e.g. bicipite, precipite)
color      (e.g. incolor, tricolor)
corde      (e.g. concorde, discorde)
corno      (e.g. bicorne, unicorne)
cuspide    (e.g. bicuspide, multicuspide)
fin        (e.g. affin, confin)
flor       (e.g. multiflor, uniflor)
forma      (e.g. multiforme, uniforme)
lingua     (e.g. bilingue, crassilingue)
remo       (e.g. bireme, trireme)

(i) the following adjectives which represent the same type as those listed under (h) but which are either isolated formations or cannot be readily recognized in their composition:

commun, enorme, exsangue, illustre, imbecille immun, impun, indemne, inerte, infam, inope, insigne, insomne, semi-somne, isoscele, macroscele, multicaule, myope, participe
 
 

§ 42. On the formation of adjectives as well as of derivatives from them, see §139, §140, §141, §142, §45-§47, §152-§153.

=========
ADVERBIOS
=========

§43 Como in anglese il ha adverbios primari e derivate, e etiam expressiones adverbial.

§44 Le ADVERBIOS PRIMARI es entratas in le dictionario e require nulle remarcas grammatic. Exemplos es: nunc, minus, plus, hic, ibi, aliquanto, semper, etc.
 

§45 Le DERIVATION regular DE ADVERBIOS ab adjectivos utilisa le suffixo -mente appendite al forma complete del adjectivo. Post un -c final le vocal -a es insertate.

======
ADVERB
======

§ 43. As in English there are primary and derived adverbs as well as adverbial phrases.

§ 44. The PRIMARY ADVERBS are items in the dictionary and call for no grammatical remarks. Examples are nunc 'now,' minus 'less,' plus 'more,' hic 'here,' ibi 'there,' aliquanto 'somewhat,' semper 'always,' etc.

§ 45. The regular DERIVATION OF ADVERBS from adjectives makes use of the suffix -mente added to the full form of the adjective. After a final -c the vowel -a- is inserted.

                                  adjectivo     adverbio (...mente)
                                  -----------   --------------------
                                  natural       naturalmente
                                  evidente      evidentemente
                                  remarcabile   remarcabilemente
                                  auxiliar      auxiliarmente
                                  clar          clarmente
                                  vorace        voracemente

                                  adjectivo     adverbio (...amente)
                                  -----------   --------------------
                                  photographic  photographicamente
                                  austriac      austriacamente
§46 In un serie de adverbios derivate,
le suffixo -mente pote esser usate con
le ultime adverbio solmente.
adjectivos             adverbios
                       (...mente)
---------------------  --------------------
clar e franc           clar- e francamente
voluntari e frequente  voluntari- e 
                       frequentemente

§47 Un certe numero de adverbios listate
in le Dictionario appare esser derivate
irregularmente del adjectivos
correspondente. Exemplos es:

adjectivo  adverbio
---------  --------
bon        ben
melior     melio
pejor      pejo
mal        mal

Formationes de iste typo debe esser
acceptate como adverbios primari que non
pote servir como modellos pro derivatos
adverbial additional. Le duo gruppos
singule le plus numerose de iste typo es
illos con le desinentia -e (dunque
adverbios non distinguibile in forma del
adjectivos correspondente), e illos con
le desinentia -o.

(a) 
adjectivo (...e)      adverbio (...e)
bastante              bastante
forte                 forte
longe                 longe
tarde                 tarde

(b) 
adjectivo (...e)  adverbio (...o)
certe                 certo
expresse              expresso
juste                 justo
mesme                 mesmo
multe                 multo
preste                presto
quante                quanto
subite                subito
tante                 tanto
tote                  toto

Omne adjectivos in -issime permitte le 
formation de adverbios in -o, como 
bellissime -> bellissimo.


Le desinentia -issimo pote esser usate in le 
derivation de adverbios ab adverbios,
como ben -> benissimo.

Pro le ordinales adverbial primo, secundo, 
tertio, etc., vide §130 infra.


Nota: In uso absolute (i.e. in 
exclamationes e similes), adverbios in -o 
pote esser derivate de omne adjectivos con le 
possibile substantivationes (-o, -a). 
Vide §§40-41 supra.

Vos crede illo? - Claro!
Exacto, illo es mi opinion!



§48 Numerose EXPRESSIONES ADVERBIAL es 
unitates crystallisate e appare in iste forma 
in le Dictionario:

in summa,
de nove,
de tempore in tempore,
etc.

Le uso de omne sortas de formulationes con 
functiones adverbial es naturalmente 
illimitate como in anglese. Le expressiones 
'a tres horas', 'con mi parve soror', e 
'a presso del dentista' ha functiones 
adverbial in le phrase

'A tres horas io ha un incontro con mi parve 
soror a presso del dentista', e le mesme 
face le phrases correspondente in 
'A tres horas io es citate con mi parve soror
a presso del dentista'.

Nota que il ha equalmente nulle differentia 
inter anglese e Interlingua in le uso 
adverbial de substantivos absolute que 
exprime distantia e duration de tempore.


Io irea a pede un millia pro un pipata de 
tabaco.



Que ille attende un minuta.


E de plus, 

Su spada tirate, ille se precipitava in le 
cocina.



(Con) Lacrimas in su oculos, illa me relatava 
su triste historia.



§49 Nulle adverbio de derivation irregular 
exclude le possibilitate de un synonymo 
regular.

ben, o bonmente;
melio, o plus ben, o plus bonmente;
primo, o primemente

------------------------ 
Comparation de adverbios
------------------------

§50 Le COMPARATION DE ADVERBIOS non differe 
del comparation de adjectivos. Vide §§34-37 
supra.

interessantemente
minus interessantemente
le minus interessantemente


interessantemente
plus interessantemente
le plus interessantemente

Illa scribe plus interessantemente que ille, 
sed illa parla minus interessantemente.




Iste chocolate es attractivissimemente
impacchettate.



§51 Le FUNCTIONES DEL ADVERBIO non differe 
del usage anglese. Nota que adjectivos e in 
Interlingua e in anglese assume a vices 
functiones que induce multe grammaticos a 
conciper los como adverbios irregular. Il 
pare plus simple appellar los adjectivos e 
tractar los assi.


Le rivo curre murmurante per le foresta.



Le sol brilla clar e belle.


Post le tertie cocktail ille vide duple.


Il debe esser possibile exprimer illo plus 
breve.



Illes qui dice in anglese, "The brook runs 
babblingly through the forest," etc., pote 
naturalmente usar 'murmurantemente', etc. in 
Interlingua. De plus le adverbio in -o o -e 
pote esser usate hic.


§52 Le POSITION DEL ADVERBIOS coincide in 
principio con le usage anglese. Le adverbio 
normalmente precede lo que illo modifica. 
Illo es marcate per le position initial o 
final in le phrase, o per commas, quando 
illo modifica le enunciation integre.




Ille es extrememente felice.


Quando le tempesta arrivava, illes esseva 
felicemente reunite circa le foco.



Felicemente illes esseva al domo quando le 
tempesta arrivava.



Etiam tu!


§53 Quando un adverbio (specialmente non) e 
un pronomine (que non es le subjecto) ambes 
tenta approximar se a un verbo, le 
pronomine vince.

Io non lo crede.


Ille non me lo dice.





Io non pote supportar su perfumo.


Io non pote visitar le.


Io pote non visitar le.

Nota: Contrari al usage anglese, le
adverbio 'non' precede le verbo que illo
modifica.
§ 46. In a series of derived adverbs,
the suffix -mente need be used only with
the last.



clar e franc         : clar- e francamente
voluntari e frequente: voluntari- e 
                       frequentemente 

§ 47. A certain number of adverbs listed
in the Dictionary appear to be
irregularly derived from the
corresponding adjectives. Examples are



bon 'good'             : ben 'well'; 
melior 'better' (adj.) : melio 'better' (adv.); 
pejor 'worse' (adj.)   : pejo 'worse' (adv.);
mal 'bad'              : mal 'badly'; etc.

Formations of this type should be thought of 
as primary adverbs in the sense that they
cannot serve as models for additional
adverbial derivatives. The two most numerous 
single groups of adverbs belonging here are 
those ending in -e (that is, adverbs not 
distinguishable in form from the corresponding 
adjectives) and those ending in -o.


a)
bastante 'enough' (adj.): bastante
  'enough, sufficiently'
forte 'strong': forte 'strongly, hard'
longe 'long': longe 'far (away)'
tarde 'slow, tardy': tarde 'late' (adv.)

b) 
certe 'certain': certo 'certainly'
expresse 'express': expresso 'purposely'
juste 'just' (adj.): justo 'just, justly'
mesme 'same': mesmo 'likewise'
multe 'much, many': multo 'very, much'
preste 'agile, ready': presto 'quickly'
quante 'how much, how many': quanto 'as far 
as' subite 'sudden': subito 'suddenly'
tante 'so much, so many': tanto 'so, 
so much' tote 'all, every': toto 
'all, entirely'

All adjectives in -issime permit the
formation of adverbs in -o, as
bellissime 'most beautiful': bellissimo
'most beautifully.' 

The ending -issimo can be used in the 
derivation of adverbs from adverbs, as 
ben 'well': benissimo 'very well.' 

For the adverbial ordinals primo, secundo, 
tertio 'firstly, secondly, thirdly,' etc., 
see § 130 below.

Note: In absolute use (i.e. in
exclamations and the like), adverbs in
-o may be derived from all adjectives
with possible -o/-a substantivizations.
See §§ 40-41 above.

Vos crede illo? -- Claro! 'You believe
that?' -- 'Obviously!'
Exacto, illo es mi opinion! 'Exactly,
that's my opinion.'

§ 48. Numerous ADVERBIAL PHRASES are
crystallized units and appear as such in
the Dictionary.

in summa 'in short'
de nove 'again, anew'
de tempore in tempore 'from time to time'
etc.

The use of all sorts of formulations
with adverbial functions is naturally as
unlimited as in English. The phrases 'at
three o'clock,' 'with my little sister,'
and 'at the dentist' have adverbial
functions in the sentence, 

'At three o'clock I have an appointment 
with my little sister at the dentist,' 
and so do the corresponding phrases in 
'A tres horas io es citate con mi parve 
soror a presso del dentista.

Note that there is likewise no
difference between English and
Interlingua in the adverbial use of
absolute nouns expressing distance and
duration of time.

'I'd walk a mile for a pipeful of
tobacco'
Io irea a pede un millia pro un pipata
de tabaco

'Let him wait a minute'
Que ille attende un minuta

And further

'His sword drawn, he rushed into the
kitchen'
Su spada tirate, ille se precipitava in
le cocina

'(With) Tears in her eyes, she told me
her sad story'
(Con) Lacrimas in su oculos, illa me
relatava su triste historia

§ 49. No adverb of irregular derivation
excludes the possibility of a regular
synonym.

ben or bonmente 'well'
melio or plus ben or plus bonmente 
'better' primo or primemente 'firstly'

---------------------
Comparison of adverbs 
---------------------

§ 50. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS does not
differ from comparison of adjectives.
See §§ 34-37 above.

interessantemente: 
  plus interessantemente
  le plus interessantemente
('interestingly')

interessantemente: 
  minus interessantemente: 
  le minus interessantemente

Illa scribe plus interessantemente que
ille sed illa parla minus
interessantemente
'She writes more interestingly than he
does but she talks less interestingly'

Iste chocolate es attractivissimemente
impacchettate
'This chocolate is most attractively
done up'

§ 51. The FUNCTIONS OF THE ADVERB do not
differ from English usage. Note that
adjectives both in Interlingua and in
English assume at times functions which
induce many grammarians to conceive of
them as irregular adverbs. It seems
simpler to call them adjectives and
treat them as such.

Le rivo curre murmurante per le foresta
'The brook runs babbling through the
forest'

Le sol brilla clar e belle
'The sun shines clear and beautiful'

Post le tertie cocktail ille vide duple
'After the third cocktail he sees double'

Il debe esser possibile exprimer illo
plus breve
'It must be possible to express that
briefer (more briefly)'

Those who say in English, "The brook
runs babblingly through the forest,"
etc., may of course use murmurantemente,
etc. in Interlingua. Also the adverb in
-o or -e can be used here.


§ 52. The POSITION OF ADVERBS coincides
in principle with English usage. The
adverb normally precedes what it
modifies. It is set off by initial or
final position in the sentence or by
commas when it is to modify the
statement as a whole.



Ille es extrememente felice
'He is extremely happy'

Quando le tempesta arrivava, illes
esseva felicemente reunite circa le foco
'When the storm arrived, they were
happily assembled about the fire'

Felicemente illes esseva al domo quando
le tempesta arrivava
'Luckily they were at home when the
storm arrived'

Etiam tu!
'You too!'

§ 53. When both an adverb (especially
non 'not') and a pronoun (which is not
the subject) try to get near a verb, the
pronoun wins out.

Io non lo crede
'I don't believe it'

Ille non me lo dice
'He doesn't tell (it to) me'

Note: Contrary to English usage, the
adverb non 'not' precedes the verb form
it modifies.

Io non pote supportar su perfumo
'I cannot stand her perfume'

Io non pote visitar le
'I cannot visit him'

Io pote non visitar le
'I can not visit him, i.e., I can choose
or it is possible for me not to visit
him'
==========
PRONOMINES
==========

-----------------------------
Tabula de pronomines personal
-----------------------------

§54 Pronomines PERSONAL insimul con REFLEXIVOS e POSSESSIVOS forma un patrono como monstrate in le tabula sequente:

=======
PRONOUN
=======

--------------------------
Table of personal pronouns
--------------------------

§ 54. The PERSONAL pronouns together with the REFLEXIVES and POSSESSIVES form a pattern as shown in the following table:

Pronomines
Tabula de pronomines personal
  Subjective Objective
(a)    (b)
Reflexive Possessive
(1)        (2)
Singular
1me persona
2nde persona
3tie persona (m)
3tie persona (f)
3tie persona (n)
Plural
1me persona
2nde persona
3tie persona (m)
3tie persona (f)
3tie persona (n)
 
io
tu
ille
illa
illo
 
nos
vos
illes
illas
illos
 
me      me
te      te
ille    le
illa    la
illo    lo
 
nos     nos
vos     vos
illes   les
illas   las
illos   los
 
me
te
se
se
se
 
nos
vos
se
se
se
 
mi           mie
tu           tue
su           sue
su           sue
su           sue
 
nostre   nostre
vostre   vostre
lor      lore
lor      lore
lor      lore

(a) - objecto post un preposition
(b) - objecto directe o indirecte; vide §72 infra.
(1) - ante un substantivo e non precedite per un articulo; vide §64 infra.
(2) - post un substantivo o precedite per un articulo; vide §64 infra.

§55 Le FUNCTIONES de iste pronomines es identic con illos de lor equivalentes anglese excepte pro deviationes minor mentionate infra.

-------------------
Pronomines personal
-------------------

§56 Le PRONOMINES PERSONAL in singular es io, tu, ille, illa, illo.
 

§57 Le secunde persona singular tu es le forma familiar de adressar se, usate con infantes, amicos, in poesia, invocationes de esseres supernatural, etc. Le forma "formal" parallel de adressar se es vos cuje function primari es representar le secunde persona plural. Il ha nulle objection a extender le forma "formal" a tote usos que illo ha in anglese.

Tu es mi amico.

Vos es mi amico.
Nota que vos es identificate como singular per 'amico'; si tu parla a plure amicos, le phrase deveni
Vos es mi amicos.

Nota: Un forma collateral de illa es ella; le duo non debe esser usate in le mesme texto.

§58 Le tertie persona singular ha formas que distingue - como in anglese - masculin, feminin, e neutre. Le distinction non es un question de genere grammatic, sed de sexo.
... le capro ... Ille es belle, o Illo es belle.
 
 

... le femina ... Illa es belle.
 

... le libro ... Illo es interessante.
 

§59 In le tertie persona singular neutre, il ha un forma inaccentuate il pro uso como un subjecto grammatic.

Il niva.
Il face frigido.
Il es ver que callos es penose.
 

In le ultime construction, un cambio in le ordine de parolas elimina le subjecto anticipitate il. Assi le formas possibile es
 

Que callos es penose es ver, o
Ver es que callos es penose, o
Es ver que callos es penose.

In iste formas, le subjecto real es 'que callos es penose', sed le uso de formas impersonal del verbo sin pronomine pote esser etiam extendite a constructiones del typo

Non importa!
Face frigido.
etc.

-----------------------------
Pronomine personal indefinite
-----------------------------

§60 Le PRONOMINE PERSONAL INDEFINITE es on. Illo pote solmente esser usate como subjecto del phrase. In omne altere casos uno prende su placia.

On crede lo que on spera.
 

Quando on se promena in iste parco, altere promenatores collide frequentemente con uno.
 
 

Le forma uno pote etiam servir como le subjecto e assi es un synonymo de on. Illo es le forma pronominal del articulo indefinite un. Vide §21.

§61 Le pronomines personal in le prime e secunde personas plural es nos e vos. In le tertie persona, illes, illas, illos es le formas plural regular del singulares ille, illa, illo. Le distinction de masculin, feminin, o neutre es optional in le plural. Como in anglese un sol forma illes pote esser usate pro omne antecedentes. Le forma masculin es usate pro referer a antecedentes mixte:
 

Illes - n etiam illa - es illac.
 

§62 In contrasto a omne altere partes del discurso, le pronomines personal monstra un distinction de duo FORMAS DE CASO excepte in le prime e secunde personas plural; (i.e. io-me, tu-te, ille-le, illa-la, illo-lo; nos-nos, vos-vos, illes-les, illas-las, illos- los.) Le formas accusative in le prime e secunde personas singular es me e te. In le tertie personas le formas accusative, le, la, lo, les, las, los es le secunde syllaba del formas nominative correspondente.

§63 Quanto al FUNCTIONES del formas del caso del pronomines personal, un distinction es facite inter

(a) le subjecto,
(b) le objecto de un preposition, e
(c) le objecto de un verbo.

Le forma nominative es usate como subjecto e - in le tertie personas - como objecto de un preposition. Le forma accusative es usate como objecto de un verbo e - in le prime e secunde personas

- como objecto de un preposition. Pro summarisar omne iste formas in un supervista paradigmatic, il pote esser utile adaptar un phrase modello como

- Io tenta impressionar te con ille

a omne personas in singular e plural.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alicunes del enunciationes resultante es satis artificial. Illos es date pro esser complete e sembla esser al minus theoreticamente possibile si interpretate como seque:

(1) Io tenta impressionar te con ille;
p.ex.: Io tenta impressionar te con lo que io te dice super mi granfratre.

(2) Tu tenta impressionar le con illa;
p.ex.: Tu tenta impressionar tu fratre con tu belle fidantiata.

(3) Ille tenta impressionar la con illo;
p.ex.: Ille tenta impressionar le puera per monstrar la su nove auto.

(4) Illa tenta impressionar lo con nos;
p.ex.: Illa nos ha invitate a su concerto proque illa vole impressionar su audientia con le numero de su amicos.

(5) Illo tenta impressionar nos con vos;
p.ex.: Le governamento tenta impressionar nos, le populo, con le facto que vos, le membros del assemblea constitutional, es ancora permittite convenir.

(6) Nos tenta impressionar vos con illes;
p.ex.: Nos tenta impressionar vos, qui es nostre amicos povre, con nostre patres ric.
 

(7) Vos tenta impressionar les con illas;
p.ex.: Vos tenta impressionar le pueros con lo que vos dice a illes super vostre amicas.
 

(8) Illes tenta impressionar las con illos;
p.ex.: Le pueros tenta impressionar le pueras con lor belle autos de illes.
 

(9) Illas tenta impressionar los con me;
p.ex.: Le pueras tenta impressionar lor conscientias con le facto que illas me ha adjutate.

(10) Illos tenta impressionar me con te;
p.ex.: Le poteres obscur tenta impressionar me con te, le omnipotente Mephistopheles.
 

-----------
Possessivos
-----------

§64 POSSESSIVOS es adjectivos e ha in commun con altere adjectivos le possibilitate de preceder o sequer le substantivo que illos qualifica e de esser usate como pronomines e substantivos. Vide §§33, 38-40 supra. Quando illos precede le substantivo le construction normalmente non include le articulo. In iste position - i.e., ante un substantivo e non precedite per un articulo - le formas de adjectivos possessive omitte lor -e final (excepte in nostre e vostre ubi illo seque un gruppo de consonantes); (i.e. io-mi/mie, tu-tu/tue, ille-su/sue, illa-su/sue, illo-su/sue; nos- nostre/nostre, vos-vostre/vostre, illes-lor/lore, illas-lor/lore, illos-lor/lore.)

Mi fratre e tu soror celebra lor nuptias.
 
 

Mi fratre e le fratre tue es bon amicos.
 

Mi fratre e le tue es bon amicos.
 

Patre nostre, qui es ...
 

mi matre, o le matre mie, o (rarmente) le mie matre

Ille labora nocte e die pro le suos.
 

§65 Pro le tertie persona masculin, feminin, e neutre, il ha solo le possessivos 'su' in le singular e 'lor' in le plural. Ubi un distinction es necessari, illo es exprimite per le modellos sequente:

Ille e illa velia tote le nocte al lecto de su moriente patre de illa.
Ille e illa velia tote le nocte al lecto del moriente patre de illa.

Mi patre e le suo de ille es amicos.
Mi patre e le de ille es amicos.

----------
Reflexivos
----------

§66 Le pronomine REFLEXIVE in omne le tertie personas es se. In le prime e secunde personas le forma accusative del pronomines personal functiona como reflexivos; (i.e. io-me, tu-te, ille-se, illa-se, illo-se; nos-nos, vos-vos, illes-se, illas-se, illos-se.)

Io me marita con te, e tu te marita con me.
 
 

Ille se marita con illa, e illa se marita con ille.

Illes se marita con illas, e illas se marita con illes.

§67 Constructiones reflexive es primarimente del typo in le qual le objecto del verbo es logicamente identic con le subjecto. Nota que isto produce constructiones reflexive ubi le anglese sovente omitte un pronomine de objecto, como in "I wash" con le senso de "I wash myself: Io me lava."

Illa se face indispensabile.
 

Io me vide como alteros me vide.
 

§68 Constructiones reflexive es etiam usate pro exprimer ideas passive quando il ha nulle agente involvite. "These books are sold at Bloomingdale's" pote esser reimplaciate per le traduction de "These books sell themselves at Bloomingdale's." Nota que isto coperi constructiones del typo, "These books sell well."
 

Iste libros se vende al magazin de Bloomingdale.

Iste libro se vende multo ben.

Tal cappellos se vide frequentemente.
 

§69 PRONOMINES PERSONAL ACCUSATIVE E PRONOMINES REFLEXIVE (excepte in constructiones prepositional) precede le formas temporal simple del verbo, sed seque participios, formas imperative, e infinitivos.

Io les surprendeva.

Pro surprender les, io debeva currer.
 

Dirigente se verso le sol, illa precava.
 

Io collabora con illes.

Monstra lo a ille.

§70 In tempores composite que consiste de un forma temporal auxiliar plus un infinitivo o participio passate, le pronomines personal o reflexive pote preceder le verbo auxiliar o sequer le participio o infinitivo.

Io ha surprendite les.
Io les ha surprendite.

Io va surprender les.
Io les va surprender.

In constructiones con facer, le duo positiones del pronomine suggere logicamente duo significationes distincte.

Io le face batter le.

Io le face batter; (i.e. il es ille qui batte.)

Io face batter le; (i.e. il es ille qui es battite.)

§71 In un combination de duo pronomines, le un personal e le altere reflexive, le pronomine reflexive precede.

Illa se nos monstra.

Io me lo dice.

In un combination de duo pronomines personal, le pronomine cuje relation al verbo es le plus indirecte o remote precede.

Illa me lo dice.

Illa me lo ha dicite.
Illa ha dicite me lo.

Pro dicer me lo, illa debeva telephonar.
 

In un combination de un pronomine personal simple o reflexive con un altere que es precedite per un preposition o con un objecto substantive, le pronomine simple precede.

Illa ha le tempore pro intertener se con illes.
 

Illa ha le tempore pro intertener se con su canes.

Illa ha intertenite se con illes.
Illa se ha intertenite con illes.
 

§72 Nota: Il ha nulle distinction inter formas accusative e dative del pronomines como illo que appare in alicun altere linguas. Parallel al usage anglese le idea dative es clarificate pro differentiation o emphase per le preposition a.
 

Io inviava un telegramma a mi granpatre.
 

Io lo inviava a mi granpatre.
 

Io le inviava un telegramma.

Io le lo inviava.
Io lo inviava a ille.

§73 Le placia de pronomines in le phrase non es rigidemente fixate. Le paragraphos precedente describe le norma del qual deviationes es justificate per considerationes de rhythmo o emphase.

Ille ama arachides e illa ama se.
 

Io vos crede si vos crede me.
 

---------
Relativos
---------

§74 Le RELATIVOS es que e qual. Le prime es primarimente un pronomine relative, le secunde es un adjectivo relative.

Le ultime traino que pote portar me ibi a tempore parti in cinque minutas.
 

Ille fuma opium, qual vitio ille ha acquirite durante le guerra.
 

§75 Le forma qual precedite per le articulo definite le es pronominal e pote esser pluralisate.

Le cavallo e le asino le qual non esseva sellate curreva a velocitate equal. (le qual = le asino)
 
 

Le cavallo e le asino le quales non esseva sellate ... (le quales = le cavallo e le asino)
 

§76 Le FUNCTIONES DE CASOS - con que e qual - es portate per le prepositiones de (pro le genitivo) e a (pro le dativo). Il ha un genitivo relative special, cuje, e un forma qui, que es usate solmente pro personas e solmente como subjecto o post un preposition.
 

Le documentos que le spia portava con se esseva multo importante
 

Le documentos con que le spia escappava esseva multo importante
 

Le documentos de que le spia habeva copias esseva multo importante
 

Le documentos cuje importantia esseva dubitose incriminava le spia
 

Le documentos del quales le spia habeva copias...
 

Le documentos, le importantia del quales esseva dubitose...
 

Le spia qui portava le documentos esseva habile
 

Le spia que le agente de policia habeva vidite portava con se le plus importante documentos
 
 

Le spia de qui le policia habeva establite le identitate...
 

Le spia cuje identitate le policia habeva establite...

Nota: In contrasto al usage anglese, il ha nulle constructiones relative sin un pronomine relative.
 

The tobacco you smoke is abominable:
Le tabaco que vos fuma es abominabile.

The onions you ate smell to high heaven:
Le cibollas que tu ha mangiate odora al alte celo.

§77 Pro le pronomine relative lo que, vide §21 supra.

--------------
Demonstrativos
--------------

§78 Le DEMONSTRATIVOS es adjectivos que pote esser usate como pronomines. Assi illos es capabile de assumer formas concordante con le numero e sexo de lor antecedentes. In lor selection de desinentias pronominal illos non seque le patrono del adjectivos substantivate (-e: neutre; -o: masculin o neutre; -a: feminin); in su loco illos seque le patrono del pronomines personal del tertie persona
(-e: masculin; -a: feminin; -o: neutre).

§79 Le demonstrativo de proximitate es iste; e de distantia ille.

iste homine e ille femina ...
 

ille homine e iste femina ...

iste tabula e ille libro ...
 

ille tabula e iste libro ...
 

Iste pais es libere.

Isto es un libere pais.

Iste puera odia illa.
 

Que es isto? Que es illo?
 

Ille idiota!

Istes es mi studentes.

Istas es mi filias.

Da me ille libros. Illos es le mies.
 

Iste edition es plus complete que ille duo.
 

Iste edition es plus complete que illos.
 

Un femina: - Io es una de illas qui crede que le matrimonio es sancte.
 

Un homine: - Io es uno de illes qui crede que le matrimonio es sancte.
 

Nota: Un forma collateral de ille es celle; le duo non pote esser usate in le mesme texto.

§ 55. The FUNCTIONS of these pronouns are identical with those of their English equivalents except for minor deviations mentioned below.

-----------------
Personal pronouns
-----------------

§ 56. The PERSONAL PRONOUNS in the singular are io 'I,' tu 'you (thou),' ille 'he,' illa 'she,' illo 'it.'

§ 57. The second person singular tu is the familiar form of address used with children, friends, in poetry, invocations of supernatural beings, etc. The parallel "formal" form of address is vos 'you' whose primary function is to represent the second person plural. There is no objection to extending the "formal" form to all uses it has in English.

Tu es mi amico 'You are my friend'

Vos es mi amico 'You are my friend'; note that vos is identified as a singular by amico; 'You are my friends' runs Vos es mi amicos
 
 

Note: A collateral form of illa is ella; the two should not be used in the same text.

§ 58. The third person singular distinguishes -- as in English -- masculine, feminine, and neuter forms. The distinction is not a matter of grammatical gender but of sex.
... le capro... ille es belle, or Illo es belle
'... the billy-goat... He is handsome';
 

... le femina... Illa es belle
'... the woman... She is beautiful'

... le libro... Illo es interessante
'... the book.... It is interesting'

§ 59. In the third person singular neuter there is an unstressed form il 'it' for use as a grammatical subject.

Il niva 'It snows'
Il face frigido 'It is cold'
Il es ver que callos es penose 'It is true that corns are painful'

In the last construction a change in word order, 'That corns are painful is true,' eliminates the anticipating subject 'it.' Hence the possible forms

Que callos es penose es ver or
Ver es que callos es penose or
Es ver que callos es penose.

In these forms the real subject is que callos es penose, but the use of impersonal verb forms without pronoun may also be extended to constructions of the type

non importa 'it does not matter';
face frigido 'it is cold';
etc.

---------------------------
Indefinite personal pronoun
---------------------------

§ 60. The INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN is on 'one.' It can only be used as the subject of the sentence. In all other cases uno takes its place.

On crede lo que on spera 'One believes what one hopes'

Quando on se promena in iste parco, altere promenatores collide frequentemente con uno 'When one takes a walk in this park, other walkers frequently bump into one'

The form uno can likewise serve as subject and is then synonymous with on. It is the pronominal form of the indefinite article. See above §21.

§ 61. The personal pronouns in the first and second persons plural are nos 'we' and vos 'you.' In the third person, illes, illas, illos 'they' are regular plural forms of the corresponding singulars ille, illa, illo, 'he, she, it.' The distinction of masculine, feminine, neuter is optional in the plural. As in English a single form 'they' illes may be used for all antecedents. The masculine form is used to refer to mixed antecedents:

Illes -- non solmente ille sed etiam illa -- es illac 'They -- not only he but she too -- are there.'

§ 62. In contrast to all other parts of speech, the personal pronouns show a distinction of two CASE FORMS except in the first and second persons plural. The second-case forms in the first and second persons singular are me 'me' and te 'thee (you).' In the third persons the second-case forms, le, la, lo, les, las, los 'him, her, it, them' are the second syllable of the corresponding first-case forms.
 
 

§ 63. As for the FUNCTIONS of the personal-pronoun case forms, a distinction is made between

(a) subject,
(b) object of a preposition, and
(c) object of a verb.

The first-case form is used as subject and -- in the third persons --as object of a preposition. The second-case form is used as object of a verb and -- in the first and second persons

-- as object of a preposition. To summarize all these forms in a paradigmatic survey, it may be useful to adapt a model sentence like
 

-- Io tenta impressionar te con ille 'I am trying to impress you with him' to all persons in both singular and plural.

1. io ... te ... ille 2. tu ... le ... illa 3. ille ... la ... illo 4. illa ... lo ... nos 5. illo ... nos ... vos 6. nos ... vos ... illes 7. vos ... les ... illas 8. illes ... las ... illos 9. illas ... los ... me 10. illos ... me ... te

Some of these statements are rather artificial. They are given for the sake of completeness and seem at least theoretically possible if construed as follows:

1. 'I am trying to impress you (thee) with him' (e.g.: I am trying to impress you with what I tell you about my big brother)

2. 'You (thou) are trying to impress him with her' (e.g.: You are trying to impress your brother with your beautiful fiancee)

3. 'He is trying to impress her with it' (e.g.: He is trying to impress the girl by showing her his new automobile)

4. 'She is trying to impress it with us' (e.g.: She has invited us to her concert because she wants to impress her audience with the number of her friends)

5. 'It is trying to impress us with you (pl.)' (e.g.: The government is trying to impress us, the people, with the fact that you, members of a constitutional assembly, are still allowed to convene)

6. 'We are trying to impress you (pl.) with them (masc.)' (e.g.: We are trying to impress you, who are poor friends of ours, with our wealthy fathers)

7. 'You are trying to impress them (masc.) with them (fem.)' (e.g.: You are trying to impress the boys with what you tell them about your girl friends)

8. 'They (masc.) are trying to impress them (fem.) with them' (neut.) (e.g.: The boys are trying to impress the girls with their beautiful automobiles)

9. 'They (fem.) are trying to impress them (neut.) with me' (e.g.: The girls are trying to impress their consciences with the fact that they have helped me)

10. 'They (neut.) are trying to impress me with you (thee)' (e.g.: The powers of darkness are trying to impress me with you, the all-powerful Mephistopheles).

-----------
Possessives
-----------

§ 64. The POSSESSIVES are adjectives and share with other adjectives the possibility of preceding or following the noun they qualify and of being used as pronouns and nouns. See §§ 33, 38-40 above. When they precede the noun the construction normally dispenses with an article. In this position -- i.e., before a noun and not preceded by an article -- the forms of the possessive adjectives drop their final e (except in nostre and vostre where it follows a consonant cluster).
 
 
 

Mi fratre e tu soror celebra lot nuptias
'My brother and your (thy) sister celebrate their wedding'

Mi fratre e le fratre tue es bon amicos 'My brother and your brother are good friends'

Mi fratre e le me es bon amicos 'My brother and yours are good friends'

Patre nostre, qui es ... 'Our Father, Who art ...'

mi matre or le matre mie or (rarely) le mie matre 'my mother'

Ille labora nocte e die pro le suos 'He works night and day for his people'

§ 65. For the third person masculine, feminine, and neuter, there is only one possessive each in the singular and plural. Where a distinction is needed, it is brought out after the following models:

Ille e illa velia tote le nocte al lecto de su (or del) moriente patre de illa 'He and she are sitting up all night at her dying father's bedside'

Mi patre e le suo (or le) de ille es amicos 'My father and his are friends'

----------
Reflexives
----------

§ 66. The REFLEXIVE pronoun in all third persons is se 'himself, herself, themselves.' In the first and second persons the second-case forms of the personal pronouns function as reflexives.
 
 

Io me marita con te, e tu te marita con me 'I get married (marry myself) to you and you get married (marry yourself) to me'

Ille se marita con illa, e illa se marita con ille

Illes se marita con illas, e illas se marita con illes

§ 67. Reflexive constructions are primarily of the type in which the object of the verb happens to be logically identical with the subject. Note that this makes reflexive constructions which in English often dispense with an object pronoun, as in I wash' in the sense of 'I wash myself.'

Illa se face indispensabile 'She makes herself indispensable'

Io me vide como alteros me vide 'I see myself as others see me'

§ 68. Reflexive constructions are also used to express passive ideas when there is no agent involved. 'These books are sold at Bloomingdale's' may be replaced by the translation of 'These books sell themselves at Bloomingdale's.' Note that this covers constructions of the type, 'These books sell well.'

Iste libros se vende al magazin de Bloomingdale

Iste libro se vende multo ben

Tal cappellos se vide frequentemente 'Such hats are often seen' or 'One often sees such hats'

§ 69. SECOND-CASE PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (except in prepositional constructions) precede the simple tense forms of the verb but follow the participles, imperative forms, and the infinitive.
 

Io les surprendeva 'I surprised them'

Pro surprender les io debeva currer 'In order to surprise them I had to run'

Dirigente se verso le sol, illa precava 'Turning toward the sun, she prayed'

Io collabora con illes 'I collaborate with them'

Monstra lo a ille 'Show it to him'

§ 70. In the compound tenses which consist of an auxiliary tense form plus an infinitive or past participle, the personal or reflexive pronouns may precede the auxiliary or follow the participle or infinitive.

Io ha surprendite les or Io les ha surprendite 'I have surprised them'

Io va surprender les or Io les va surprender 'I will surprise them'

In constructions with facer 'to cause to, to make,' the two positions of the pronoun suggest logically two distinct meanings.

Io le face batter le 'I make him beat him'

Io le face batter 'I make him beat'

Io face batter le '(I make beat him) I have him beaten'

§ 71. In a combination of two pronouns, one personal and the other reflexive, the latter precedes.

Illa se nos monstra 'She shows herself to us'

Io me lo dice 'I tell (it to) myself'

In a combination of two personal pronouns that one precedes whose relation to the verb is more indirect or remote.

Illa me lo dice 'She tells (it to) me'

Illa me lo ha dicite or Illa ha dicite me lo 'She has told (it to) me'

Pro dicer me lo illa debeva telephonar 'To tell (it to) me, she had to telephone'

In a combination of one simple personal or reflexive pronoun with another preceded by a preposition or with a noun object, the simple pronoun precedes.

Illa ha le tempore pro intertener se con illes

Illa ha le tempore pro intertener se con su canes 'She has the time to amuse herself with her dogs'

Illa ha intertenite se con illes or Illa se ha intertenite con illes 'She has amused herself with them'

§ 72. Note: There is no distinction between accusative and dative forms of the pronouns like that which appears in some other languages. Parallel to English usage the dative idea is clarified for differentiation or emphasis by the preposition a.

Io inviava un telegramma a mi granpatre 'I sent a wire to my grand-father'

Io lo inviava a mi granpatre 'I sent it to my grandfather'

Io le inviava un telegramma 'I sent him a wire'

Io le lo inviava or Io lo inviava a ille 'I sent him it' or 'I sent it to him'

§ 73. The place of pronouns in the sentence is not rigidly fixed. The preceding paragraphs describe the norm from which deviations are justified by considerations of rhythm or emphasis.

Ille ama arachides e illa ama se 'He loves peanuts and she loves herself'

Io vos crede si vos crede me 'I believe you if you believe me'

---------
Relatives
---------

§ 74. The RELATIVES are que and qual. The former is primarily a relative pronoun, the latter is a relative adjective.

Le ultime traino que pote portar me ibi a tempore parti in cinque minutas 'The last train that can get me there on time will leave in five minutes'

Ille fuma opium, qual vitio ille ha acquirite durante le guerra 'He smokes opium, which vice he acquired during the war'

§ 75. The form qual preceded by the definite article le is pronominal and can be pluralized.
 

Le cavallo e le asino le qual non esseva sellate curreva a velocitate equal 'The horse and the donkey which (latter) was not saddled ran at equal speed'

Le cavallo e le asino le quales non esseva sellate... 'The horse and the donkey which were not saddled...'

§ 76. The FUNCTIONS OF CASES -- with both que and qual -- are carried by the prepositions de (for the genitive) and a (for the dative). There is a special genitive relative, cuje 'whose,' and a form qui 'who, whom' which is used only for persons and only as subject or after a preposition.

Le documentos que le spia portava con se esseva multo importante 'The documents which the spy carried with him were very important'

Le documentos con que le spia escappava esseva multo importante 'The documents with which the spy escaped were very important'

Le documentos de que le spia habeva copias esseva multo importante 'The documents of which the spy had copies were very important'

Le documentos cuje importantia esseva dubitose incriminava le spia 'The documents whose importance was dubious incriminated the spy'

Le documentos del quales le spia habeva copias... 'The documents of which the spy had copies...'

Le documentos, le importantia del quales esseva dubitose... 'The documents whose importance was dubious...'

Le spia qui portava le documentos esseva habile 'The spy who carried the documents was skillful'

Le spia que le agente de policia habeva vidite portava con se le plus importante documentos 'The spy whom the policeman had seen carried with him the most important documents'

Le spia de qui le policia habeva establite le identitate... 'The spy whose identity the police had established...'

Le spia cuje identitate le policia habeva establite...

Note: In contrast to English usage there are no relative constructions without a relative pronoun.

'The tobacco you smoke is abominable' Le tabaco que vos fuma es abominabile

'The onions you ate smell to high heaven' Le cibollas que tu ha mangiate odora al alte celo

§ 77. For the relative pronoun lo que 'what,' see § 21 above.

--------------
Demonstratives
--------------

§ 78. The DEMONSTRATIVES are adjectives which can be used as pronouns. Hence they are capable of assuming forms agreeing with the number and sex of their antecedents. In their choice of pronominal endings they do not fall into the pattern of substantivized adjectives (-e: neutral; -o: male or neuter; -a: female); instead they follow the pattern of personal third person pronouns (-e: male; -a: female; -o: neuter).

§ 79. The demonstrative of proximity is iste 'this'; that of remoteness ille 'that.'

iste homine e ille femina 'this man and that woman'

ille homine e iste femina 'that man and this woman'

iste tabula e ille libro 'this table and that book'

ille tabula e iste libro 'that table and this book'

Iste pais es libere 'This country is free'

Isto es un libere pais 'This is a free country'

Iste puera odia illa 'This girl hates that (one)'

Que es isto? Que es illo? 'What is this? What is that?'

ille idiota! 'That idiot!'

Istes es mi studentes 'These are my students'

Istas es mi fillas 'These are my daughters'

Da me ille libros. Illos es le mies 'Give me those books; they (those) are mine'

Iste edition es plus complete que ille duo 'This edition is more complete than those two'

Iste edition es plus complete que illos 'This edition is more complete than those'

(Woman speaking) Io es una de illas qui crede que le matrimonio es sancte; 'I am one of those who believe that matrimony is sacred'

(Man speaking) Io es uno de illes qui crede... 'I am one of those who believe that matrimony is sacred'

Note: A collateral form of ille is celle; the two should not be used in the same text.

======
Verbos
======

§80 Le verbo ha un infinitivo e duo participios (passate e presente); illo ha un imperativo, e quatro tempores simple (presente, passato, futuro, conditional). Illo usa verbos auxiliar pro formar un serie complete de tempores composite como etiam le passivo. Le verbo ha nulle inflexion personal e nulle subjunctivo (sed vide §111 infra). Il ha nulle verbo auxiliar que corresponde al anglese {to do} pro uso in constructiones emphatic e interrogative. Il ha nulle formas progressive crystallisate (sed vide §94).
 

----------
Infinitivo
----------

§81 Le INFINITIVO termina sempre in -r con un del vocales -a, -e, -i precedente:

crear: cre-ar
vider: vid-er
audir: aud-ir

(Pro un systema verbal collateral con un distinction ulterior de infinitivos in -er e -ere, vide infra §148 nota; etiam le nota concernente participios, §97.)

§82 Concernente le formationes de infinitivos e etiam de derivatos de illos, vide §§140, 145-150, 153-154, 155, 157.

§83 Le infinitivo pote esser usate como un substantivo e in iste function illo corresponde al gerundio anglese.

le venir del estate ...
Vider es creder.
le susurrar del motor ...

Iste viagiar de un pais al altere es fatigante.
 
 

le ir e venir del clientes ...

Le faceres del formicas es interessante a observar.
 
 

Nota: Como le equivalente del substantivo o quasi-substantivo anglese in {-ing}, le infinitivo occurre con omne sortas de prepositiones in constructiones correspondente al exemplos anglese {without going: sin vader}, {by doing: per facer}, {before opening: ante aperir}, etc. Isto etiam coperi le typo {for sewing: pro/a/de suer} como in {machine for sewing}, i.e., {sewing machine: machina a/de suer}, e finalmente le patrono {of doing: a/de facer} como in {capable of doing: capabile de facer}, e {we think of doing: nos pensa a/de facer.}

Illes le condemnava sin audir su defensa.
 

Per rumper le osso, on potera forsan rectificar su gamba.
 

Post haber passate le suburbios, on pote avantiar plus rapidemente.
 

Io vole ben humiliar me ante ille usque corriger su grammatica, sed non usque pagar su debitas.
 
 
 

Le sala a attender deberea esser equipate de un machina a scriber.
 

Comencia tu studios per arder omne libros.
 

Illa es capace de perder le traino.
 

Nos pensa ir al theatro.
 

Concernente le manco de un equivalente del anglese {of} in le ultime exemplo, vide §87 infra.

§84 Separate del phrase, le infinitivo non es precedite per un preposition correspondente al anglese {to} como in {to go}, etc. - Iste {to} es un phenomeno anglese peculiar e non debe esser confundite con le uso de {to} ante un infinitivo intra un phrase complete. Hic, {to} ha un function grammatic e es requirite o omittite in conformitate con regulas grammatic specific le quales face nos dicer "I need to eat" con {to} e "I need not eat" sin {to}. - Intra un phrase le equivalente de anglese {to} ante infinitivos es de o a o pro o nihil como differentiate infra.

§85 Le preposition a es usate quando le infinitivo pare representar un objectivo post un adjectivo o un construction verbal.
 

Nos aspira a realisar nostre ideales.
Iste porta non es facile a aperir.
 
 
 

§86 Le preposition pro es usate quando le infinitivo pare representar un proposito como in un construction anglese con {in order to: a fin de.}

Ille venira pro reparar le fenestra.
 

Io mangia pro viver, sed quando nos ha globos de patata io vive pro mangiar.
 

§87 Un preposition non es necessari quando le infinitivo pote esser interpretate como un substantivo o como si illo occupa le placia de un substantivo.

(a) In un exemplo como "It is difficult to walk in the sand," le infinitivo es le subjecto logic e assi le equivalente de un substantivo; le enunciation es identic con "Walking in the sand is difficult." Hic le infinitivo appare sin un preposition precedente:

Il es difficile vader in le arena, o Vader in le arena es difficile.

Vide §83 supra.

(b) Quandocunque un verbo transitive es sequite per un infinitivo dependente como in
"I plan to go to the country," le idea que illo representa pote esser exprimite plus o minus lisiemente per un substantivo, como in "I plan a trip to the country :"

Io plana vader al campania.

Assi, post un verbo transitive le infinitivo dependente non es introducite per un preposition.

In van io ha tentate convincer le.
 

Il es facile rider con le ridentes e difficile plorar con le plorantes.
 
 

Il es un grande privilegio esser inter vos iste vespere.
 

Nos intende ameliorar nostre methodos de agricultura.
 

Ille diceva que su soror sperava revider nos. Illa time esser sol con le patiente.
 
 

§88 Un preposition ante le infinitivo non pote esser usate

(a) post constructiones con voler, poter, deber, soler e

(b) post constructiones con lassar, facer, etiam vider, audir e altere verbos de perception sensorial quando illos ha un objecto que es al mesme tempore le subjecto del infinitivo sequente, como in "I see him come: Io le vide venir."

Io volerea dormir, sed illa debe dansar.
Illa crede que illa pote cantar.
Le matre faceva le doctor venir.
Le matre faceva venir le doctor.
Io senti le nausea montar.
Io audi le venir.
Io le audi venir.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nota: In le enunciation, Io face le studente acceptar mi consilio,
le substantivos pote naturalmente esser reimplaciate per pronomines pro render le forma plus simple,
Io le face acceptar lo.

Logicamente le secunde enunciation debe esser un base pro le duo assertiones,
Io le face acceptar, e

Io face acceptar lo: (i.e., Io fortia gente generalmente a acceptar lo.)

De facto le formas "Io le face acceptar," e "Io face acceptar lo" es correcte, ben que le secunde apparerea in anglese non como "I make accept it," sed como "I have it accepted," o "I cause it to be accepted." Exemplos similar es:

Illa me faceva vender le can.
Illa faceva vender le can.
Io videva le infantes occider le ave.
Io les videva occider lo.
Io videva occider lo.
 
 
 
 
 
 

§89 Le preposition neutre usate con le infinitivo es de.

Io es felice de revider vos.
Le necessitate de ganiar plus es clar.

Ille se effortia de mitter le motor in motion.
 
 
 
 

§90 Nota: Constructiones anglese del typo "I want him to come" pote solmente esser rendite como "I want that he come:"

Io vole que ille veni.

Constructiones anglese como per exemplo "I had the pleasure of seeing her" es sempre rendite como "I had the pleasure to see her:"
Io habeva le placer de vider la.

§91 LE INFINITIVO ES USATE pro exprimer ordines general, prohibitiones, etc.

Non fumar!
Non sputar super le solo!
Tener se al dextra!

§92 Le infinitivo es usate post particulas interrogative in accordo con le modello anglese, "I don't know what to do."

Io non sape que facer.
Il es difficile decider se ubi vader.
Que creder nunc?
Nos non sapeva qual pisce prender primo.
 
 
 
 
 

-------------------
Participio presente
-------------------

§93 Le PARTICIPIO PRESENTE termina in -nte que es addite al infinitivo minus su -r final, con le stipulation que un -i precedente se cambia a -ie.

crear: cre-ante
vider: vid-ente
audir: aud-iente

Nota: Le participios presente sequente ha -iente como le forma preferite ben que le infinitivos correspondente termina in -er: capiente e omne le compositos de -cipente (incipiente, etc.), faciente e omne le compositos in -ficiente (deficiente, etc.), omne le compositos de -jiciente (injiciente, etc.), sapiente, e omne le compositos de -spiciente (inspiciente, etc.). - Proque le suffixo -antia e su variantes -entia, -ientia (vide §152) es derivate ab formas de participio presente, lor connexion con verbos es parallel al formation de participios presente. Cata verbo con un participio presente in -iente rende un substantivo in -ientia, etc.

§94 Le participio presente es un adjectivo e como un tal ha omne le characteristicas de altere adjectivos. Vide §§32-39, 41 supra e 152 infra.

Nota: Le participio presente ha nulle function in le paradigma verbal, nam il ha nulle forma progressive crystallisate correspondente al anglese "I am buying, hoping," etc. Sed expressiones como "A dead dog cannot be living" pote naturalmente esser traducite litteralmente si illos ha senso.

Un can morte non pote esser vivente.

Le climate de Alaska va deveniente plus benigne.
 
 

Minnehaha significa "aqua ridente."
 

Transversante le oceano, io habeva un placente aventura.
 

Duo passantes videva le accidente.
 

Essente surveliate per le policia, ille non osava mover se.
 

------------------
Participio passate
------------------

§95 Le PARTICIPIO PASSATE termina in -te que es addite al infinitivo minus su -r final, con le stipulation que un precedente -e se cambia a -i.

crear: cre-ate
vider: vid-ite
audir: aud-ite

Nota: Le participios passate es accentuate regularmente super le vocal ante le ultime consonante. Concernente un altere systema de accento collateral, vide nota-pede a §148 infra.

§96 Como in anglese, le participio passate es usate in tempores composite passate e in le passivo. Vide §§105-106, 112-113 infra. Illo es etiam un adjectivo e como un tal ha omne le characteristicas de altere adjectivos. Illo occurre etiam como un participio absolute.

Le pluvia, impellite per le vento, entra trans le fenestra rumpite.
 

Io es fatigate.

Le inviata de Valhalla clama le animas del occiditos.
 

Impellite per le vento, le pluvia entra in le fenestra.

§97 Nota: Il ha numeros considerabile de adjectivos verbal del typo fisse, docte, benedicte, etc. pertinente al verbos finder, docer, benedicer, etc. Lor signification es identic con illo del participios passate normal findite, docite, benedicite, etc. in uso adjectival. Adjectivos verbal de iste typo pote servir como participios passate in omne le functiones inclusive illo de formar tempores composite del passato. Le regula que coperi iste puncto es le sequente: Cata verbo que ha un thema special contracte (= irregular) de derivation listate in le Dictionario pote formar un participio passate collateral per adder le desinentia -e a ille thema contracte. Vide etiam §152, le ultime puncto.

Ille es absorbite in su labor.
Ille es absorpte in su labor.
Ille ha assumite le nomine de su femina.
Ille ha assumpte le nomine de su femina.
 
 
 

In le campania on non se senti subjicite al haste del vita moderne.

In le campania on non se senti subjecte al haste del vita moderne.

§98 Le FORMAS TEMPORAL ha nulle inflexion personal e require generalmente un subjecto exprimite.

----------------
Tempore presente
----------------

§99 Le TEMPORE PRESENTE es formate del infinitivo per omitter le -r final. Illo es accentuate in conformitate con le regulas providite in §10.

crear: Io (tu, etc.) crea.
vider: Io (tu, etc.) vide.
audir: Io (tu, etc.) audi.

§100 Le tempore presente functiona naturalmente como le PRESENTE UNIVERSAL. Illo se extende a in le futuro plus liberemente que es possibile in anglese, specialmente quando le construction contine un adverbio inambigue de tempore.

Deo ama le homines.

Io non sape lo que es le nomine de iste animal.
 

Iste vespere io recipe mi canetto.
 

§101 Le verbos haber, esser, e vader ha un forma simplificate de tempore presente que consiste del prime syllaba del infinitivo: ha, es, va.
 

Proque io ha un terribile mal de capite, il es necessari que io va al doctor.
 
 

In le caso de esser, un forma plural distincte optional, son, es disponibile.

---------------
Tempore passate
---------------

§102 Le TEMPORE PASSATE es formate del infinitivo per omitter le -r final e adder le desinentia temporal -va.

crear: Io (tu, etc.) creava. vider: Io (tu, etc.) videva. audir: Io (tu, etc.) audiva.

§103 Le functiones del tempore passate es le mesme como in anglese. Nota specialmente su uso in constructiones del typo, "If he was (were) here, I might feel better :"

Si ille esseva hic, io poterea sentir me melio.

Heri nos voleva vider le Mercator de Venetia, sed nos non poteva obtener billetes, e tunc nos videva le Princessa del Czardas.

Si vos cognosceva iste operetta, vos comprenderea que io prefere Kalman a Shakespeare.

§104 Pro esser, un passato irregular optional era es disponibile.

§105 Le TEMPORES COMPOSITE DEL PASSATO (presente perfecte e passato perfecte) es formate como in anglese per le presente e passato del verbo auxiliar haber e le participio passate.

-------------------------
Tempore presente perfecte
-------------------------

crear: Io (tu, etc.) ha create. vider: Io (tu, etc.) ha vidite. audir: Io (tu, etc.) ha audite.

------------------------
Tempore passato perfecte
------------------------

crear: Io (tu, etc.) habeva create. vider: Io (tu, etc.) habeva vidite. audir: Io (tu, etc.) habeva audite.

§106 Le functiones del tempores composite passate coperi omne le functiones del formas anglese correspondente. Le presente perfecte non es tanto restricte como in anglese e es synonyme con le passato simple.
Su Majestate ha perdite su capite.

Ludovico Dece-Sex ha perdite su capite.
Ludovico Dece-Sex perdeva su capite.

-------------
Tempore futur
-------------

§107 Le FUTURO es formate del infinitivo per adder le desinentia accentuate -a, non distinguite per un marca de accento.

crear: Io (tu, etc.) creara. vider: Io (tu, etc.) videra. audir: Io (tu, etc.) audira.

-----------
Conditional
-----------

Le CONDITIONAL es formate del infinitivo per adder le desinentia -ea accentuate super le -e, sed non distinguite per un marca de accento.

crear: Io (tu, etc.) crearea.
vider: Io (tu, etc.) viderea.
audir: Io (tu, etc.) audirea.

§108 Le functiones del futuro e conditional non differe del usage anglese.

Si ille attende assatis longe, ille habera un barba.
 

Si ille attende assatis longe, ille va haber un barba.
 

Si illa habeva quatro rotas, illa esserea un omnibus.

Si illa habeva quatro rotas, illa velle esser un omnibus.

Si io esseva un avetto, io volarea a te. Si io esseva un avetto, io velle volar a te.

Nota: Futuro e conditional ambes ha formas composite collateral consistente del infinitivo con le verbos auxiliar va e velle, respectivemente.

§109 Constructiones verbal plus complexe - si on vole appellar los tempores o non - pote liberemente esser formate per le materia discutite supra.

Nos haberea potite venir.
Ille habera finite scriber.
 
 
 

----------
Imperativo
----------

§110 Le IMPERATIVO es identic con le presente, sed in general illo usa nulle pronomines.

Ama tu vicino como te mesme!
Aperi le porta!
Reguarda hic!     

Como in anglese, le pronomine occurre occasionalmente con le imperativo.

Face tu lo que io commanda.
 
 
 
 

§111 Le functiones del imperativo pote naturalmente esser assumite per un tempore presente emphatic.

Tu veni hic immediatemente!
 

Pro le uso del infinitivo con valor imperative, vide §91 supra. Le construction elliptic con 'Que ... [Io vole que ...]' es possibile con omne le personas e servi in particular a exprimer le imperativo del prime persona plural.

Que ille veni!
Que nos parti!

Le parola sia in le dictionario pote esser interpretate como un conjunction o como un subjunctivo exceptional de esser. Appercipite in le secunde senso, illo entra in constructiones de valor imperative.

Io ama lilios del valles, sia in le campo, sia in un vaso.

Le juvene maritos sia felice!
Sia gentil e face me ille favor.
 
 

-------
Passivo
-------

§112 Le verbo auxiliar del PASSIVO es esser. Le formas temporal de iste verbo auxiliar es completemente coperite per le discussion precedente del conjugation verbal. Le sequente summario de iste formas pote esser trovate conveniente.

--------------------------
tempores simple de 'esser'
--------------------------
io es ...
io esseva ... (= era)
io essera ... (= va esser)
io esserea ... (= velle esser)

----------------------------
tempores perfecte de 'esser'
----------------------------
io ha essite ...
io habeva essite ...
io habera essite ... (= va haber essite)
io haberea essite ... (= velle haber essite)

Le formas passive complete consiste del verbo auxiliar esser sequite per un participio passate.

-----------------------
tempores simple passive
(esser (simple) + pp)
-----------------------
Ille es surveliate per le policia.
Ille esseva surveliate per le policia. (= era)
Ille essera surveliate per le policia. (= va esser)
Ille esserea surveliate per le policia. (= velle esser)

--------------------------------
tempores perfecte passive (esser
(perfecte) + pp)
--------------------------------
Ille ha essite surveliate per le policia.

Ille habeva essite surveliate per le policia.

Ille habera essite surveliate per le policia. (= va haber essite)

Ille haberea essite surveliate per le policia. (= velle haber essite)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

§113 Le infinitivos passive e participios passive similarmente se compone del infinitivo e participio del verbo auxiliar con le participio passate del verbo principal que seque:
esser surveliate [infinitivo passive] essente surveliate [participio presente passive] essite surveliate [participio passate passive]
 
 

Nota que le passivo sol non pote esser distinguite de un forma de esser con un adjectivo participial.
 

Io es maritate pote significar "Io es maritate (action/passivo)" e "Io es maritate (condition/ adjectivo)."

§114 Le functiones del passivo es le mesme como in anglese. Nota, totevia, le uso del reflexivo in loco de un passivo anglese. Vide §68 supra. De plus un passivo anglese pote sovente esser rendite per un construction impersonal con on, como in
 

On non nos ama hic: Nos non es amate hic.

====
VERB
====

§ 80. The verb has an infinitive and two participles (past and present); it has an imperative; and it has four simple tenses (present, past, future, conditional). It uses auxiliaries to form a full set of compound tenses as well as the passive. It has no personal inflection and no subjunctive (but see § 111 below). There is no auxiliary corresponding to English 'to do' for use in emphatic and interrogative constructions. There are no crystallized progressive forms (but see § 94 below).

----------
Infinitive
----------

§ 81. The INFINITIVE ends always in -r with one of the vowels a, e, i preceding*

crear 'to create'
vider 'to see'
audir 'to hear'

* For a collateral verbal system with a further distinction of infinitives in -r and -re after -e-, see below § 148 note; also the note on participles, § 97.

§ 82. On the formation of infinitives as well as of derivatives from them, see §§ 140, 145-150, 153-155, 157.

§ 83. The infinitive can be used as a noun and as such it corresponds to the English gerund.
 

le venir del estate 'the coming of summer'
Vider es creder 'Seeing is believing'
le susurrar del motor 'the droning of the motor'

Iste viagiar de un pais al altere es fatigante 'This traveling from one country to another is fatiguing'

le ir e venir del clientes... 'the coming and going of customers'

Le faceres del formicas es interessante a observar 'The doings of ants are interesting to watch'

Note: As the equivalent of the English noun or quasi-noun in -ing, the infinitive occurs with all sorts of prepositions in constructions corresponding to the English examples 'without going, by doing, before opening, etc.' This also covers the type 'for sewing' as in 'machine for sewing,' i.e., 'sewing machine,' and finally the pattern 'of doing' as in 'capable of doing' and 'we think of doing. ...'
 
 
 

Illes le condemnava sin audir su defensa 'They condemned him without listening to his defense'

Per rumper le osso on potera forsan rectificar su gamba 'By breaking the bone one may perhaps be able to straighten his leg'

Post haber passate le suburbios on pote avantiar plus rapidemente 'After having passed the suburbs one can get ahead faster'

Io vole ben humiliar me ante ille usque corriger su grammatica sed non usque pagar su debitas 'I am willing to humiliate myself before him to (the point of) correcting his grammar but not to (the point of) paying his debts'

Le sala a attender deberea esser equipate de un machina a scriber 'The waiting room ought to be equipped with a typewriter'

Comencia tu studios per arder omne libros 'Begin your studies by burning all books'

Illa es capace de perder le traino 'She is capable of missing the train'

Nos pensa ir al theatro 'We are thinking of going to the theater'

On the lack of an equivalent of the English 'of' in the last example, see § 87 below.

§ 84. Detached from the sentence the infinitive is not preceded by a preposition corresponding to the English 'to' as in 'to go,' etc. -- This 'to' is a peculiarly English phenomenon and must not be confused with the use of 'to' before an infinitive within a complete sentence. Here 'to' has a grammatical function and is required or omitted in accordance with specific grammatical rules which make us say 'I need to eat' with 'to' and 'I need not eat' without 'to.'--Within a sentence the equivalent of English 'to' before the infinitive is de or a or pro or nothing as differentiated below.

§ 85. The preposition a is used when the infinitive seems to represent a goal either after an adjective or a verbal construction.

Nos aspira a realisar nostre ideales 'We strive to realize our ideals'

Iste porta non es facile a aperir 'This door is not easy to open'

§ 86. The preposition pro is used when the infinitive seems to represent a purpose as in an English construction with 'in order to.'
 

Ille venira pro reparar le fenestra 'He came (in order) to repair the window'

Io mangia pro viver, sed quando nos ha globos de patata io vive pro mangiar 'I eat to live but when we have potato dumplings I live to eat'

§ 87. A preposition need not be used when the infinitive can be construed as a noun or as occupying the place of a noun.
 

(a) In an example like, 'It is difficult to walk in the sand,' the infinitive is the logical subject and hence the equivalent of a noun; the statement is identical with 'Walking in the sand is difficult.' Here the infinitive appears without a preceding preposition:

Il es difficile vader in le arena or Vader in le arena es difficile.

See § 83 above.

(b) Whenever a transitive verb is followed by a dependent infinitive as in 'I plan to go to the country,' the idea it represents can be expressed more or less smoothly by a noun, as in 'I plan a trip to the country'
 

Io plana vader al campania.

Hence after a transitive verb the dependent infinitive is not introduced by a preposition.

In van io ha tentate convincer le 'In vain have I tried to convince him'

Il es facile rider con le ridentes e difficile plorar con le plorantes 'It is easy to laugh with the laughing and hard to weep with the weeping'
 

Il es un grande privilegio esser inter vos iste vespere 'It is a great privilege to be with you tonight'

Nos intende ameliorar nostre methodos de agricultura 'We intend to improve our agricultural methods'

Ille diceva que su soror sperava revider nos 'He said that his sister hoped to see us again' Illa time esser sol con le patiente 'She is afraid of being alone with the patient'

§ 88. A preposition before the infinitive cannot be used

(a) after constructions with voler, poter, deber, soler and

(b) after constructions with lassar, facer, also vider, audir and other verbs of sense perception when they have an object which is at the same time the subject of the following infinitive, as in 'I see him come.'

Io volerea dormir sed illa debe dansar 'I would (want to) sleep but she must dance'

Illa crede que illa pote cantar 'She thinks that she can sing'

Le matre faceva le doctor venir or Le matre faceva venir le doctor 'The mother had (made) the doctor come'

Io senti le nausea montar 'I feel the nausea rise'

Io audi le venir or Io le audi venir 'I hear him come (coming)'

Note: In the statement, Io face le studente acceptar mi consilio 'I make the student accept my advice,' the nouns can naturally be replaced by pronouns to yield the simpler form, Io le face acceptar lo 'I make him accept it.'
 

Logically the latter statement ought to be a basis for the two assertions, 'I make him accept' (i.e., I force him to accept) and

'I make accept it' (i.e., I force people in general to accept it).

Actually the forms Io le face acceptar and Io face acceptar lo are correct, though the second would not appear in English as 'I make accept it' but as 'I have it accepted' or 'I cause it to be accepted.' Similar examples are:

Illa me faceva vender le can 'She made me sell the dog'

Illa faceva vender le can 'She had the dog sold'

Io videva le infantes occider le ave 'I saw the children kill the bird'

Io les videva occider lo 'I saw them kill it'

Io videva occider lo 'I saw it being killed'
 

§ 89. The neutral preposition used with the infinitive is de.

Io es felice de revider vos 'I am happy to see you again'

Le necessitate de ganiar plus es clar 'The need to earn more is clear'

Ille se effortia de mitter le motor in motion 'He tries hard to start the motor'

§ 90. Note: English constructions of the type, 'I want him to come' can only be rendered as 'I want that he come.'

Io vole que ille veni.

English constructions such as 'I had the pleasure of seeing her' are always rendered as 'I had the pleasure to see her':
Io habeva le placer de vider la.

§ 91. THE INFINITIVE IS USED to express general orders, prohibitions, etc.

Non fumar! 'Don't smoke!, No smoking!' Non sputar super le solo! 'Don't spit on the floor!' Tener se al dextra! 'Keep to the right!'

§ 92. The infinitive is used after interrogative particles in accordance with the English model, 'I don't know what to do.'

Io non sape que facer.

Il es difficile decider se ubi vader 'It is difficult to decide where to go'

Que creder nunc? 'What are we to believe now?'

Nos non sapeva qual pisce prender primo 'We did not know what fish to catch first'

------------------
Present participle
------------------

§ 93. The PRESENT PARTICIPLE ends in -nte which is added to the infinitive less its final -r, with the proviso that a preceding -i- changes to -ie-.

crear: creante 'to create: creating' vider: vidente 'to see: seeing' audir: audiente 'to hear: hearing'

Note: The following present participles have -iente as the preferred form although the corresponding infinitives end in -er: capiente and all compounds of -cipiente (incipiente, etc.), faciente and all compounds in -ficiente (deficiente, etc.), all compounds of -jiciente (injiciente, etc.), sapiente, and all compounds of -spiciente (inspiciente, etc.).- Since the suffix -antia and its variants -entia, -ientia (see § 152) are derived from present-participle forms, their connection with verbs runs parallel to the formation of present participles. Every verb with a present participle in -iente yields a noun in -ientia, etc.

§ 94. The present participle is an adjective and as such shares all the characteristics of other adjectives. See §§ 32-39, 41 above and § 152 below.

Note: The present participle has no function in the verbal paradigm, for there is no crystallized progressive corresponding to English 'I am buying, hoping, etc.' But phrases like 'A dead dog cannot be living' may of course be translated literally in so far as they make sense.

Un can morte non pote esser vivente

Le climate de Alaska va deveniente plus benigne 'The climate of Alaska keeps (or goes on or is) getting milder'

Minnehaha significa "aqua ridente" 'Minnehaha means "laughing water" '

Transversante le oceano, io habeva un placente aventura 'Crossing the ocean I had a pleasant (pleasing) adventure'

Duo passantes videva le accidente 'Two passers-by (passing ones) saw the accident'

Essente surveliate per le policia, ille non osava mover se 'Being watched by the police, he did not dare to move'

---------------
Past participle
---------------

§ 95. The PAST PARTICIPLE ends in -te which is added to the infinitive less its final -r, with the proviso that a preceding -e- changes to -i-.

crear: create 'to create: created' vider: vidite 'to see: seen' audir: audite 'to hear: heard'

Note: Past participles are stressed regularly on the vowel before the last consonant. On a collateral stress system, see footnote to § 148 below.

§ 96. As in English the past participle is used in past compound tenses and in the passive. See §§ 105-106, 112-113 below. It is also an adjective and as such shares all the characteristics of other adjectives. Finally it occurs as an absolute participle.

Le pluvia impellite per le vento entra trans le fenestra rumpite 'The rain driven by the wind comes in through the broken window'

Io es fatigate 'I am tired (fatigued)'

Le inviata de Valhalla clama le animas del occiditos 'The envoy of Valhalla calls the souls of the slain'

Impellite per le vento, le pluvia entra in le fenestra

§ 97 Note: There are considerable numbers of verbal adjectives of the type fisse 'split,' docte 'learned,' benedicte 'blessed,' etc. belonging to the verbs finder, docer, benedicter, etc. Their meaning is identical with that of the normal past participles findite, docite, benedicite, etc. in adjectival use. Verbal adjectives of this type may be made to serve as past participles in all functions inclusive of that of forming past compound tenses. The rule covering this point is as follows: Every verb which has a special contracted ( = irregular) deriving stem listed in the Dictionary can form a collateral past participle by adding the ending -e to that contracted stem. See also § 152, last unit.

Ille es absorbite in su labor or Ille es absorpte in su labor 'He is absorbed in his work'

Ille ha assumite le nomine de su femina or Ille ha assumpte le nomine de su femina 'He has assumed the name of his wife'

In le campania on non se senti subjicite al haste del vita moderne or In le campania on non se senti subjecte al haste del vita moderne 'In the country one does not feel subjected to the hurry of modern life'

§ 98. The TENSE FORMS have no personal inflection and require generally an expressed subject.

-------------
Present tense
-------------

§ 99. The PRESENT TENSE is formed from the infinitive by dropping the final -r. It is stressed in accordance with the rules given in § 10.

io, tu, etc. crea, vide, audi 'I, you, etc. create, see, listen (hear)'
 

§ 100. The present tense functions naturally as the "UNIVERSAL PRESENT." It extends more freely into the future than is possible in English, especially when the construction contains an unambiguous adverb of time.

Deo ama le homines 'God loves men'

Io non sape lo que es le nomine de iste animal 'I don't know what the name of this animal is'

Iste vespere io recipe mi canetto 'Tonight I am going to get my puppy'

§ 101. The verbs haber 'to have', esser 'to be', and vader 'to go' have a simplified present-tense form which consists of the fist syllable of the infinitive: ha, es, va.

Proque io ha un terribile mal de capite il es necessari que io va al doctor 'Because I have a terrible headache it is necessary that I go to the doctor'

In the case of esser, a distinct optional plural form son is available.

----------
Past tense
----------

§ 102. The PAST TENSE is formed from the infinitive by dropping the final -r and adding the tense ending -va.

io, tu, etc. creava, videva, audiva 'I, you, etc. created, saw, heard (listened)'

§ 103. The functions of the past tense are the same as in English. Note especially its use in constructions of the type, 'If he was (were) here, I might feel better.'

Heri nos voleva vider le Mercator de Venetia sed nos non poteva obtener billetes e tunc nos videva le Princessa del Czardas. Si vos cognosceva iste operetta vos comprenderea que io prefere Kalman a Shakespeare. 'Yesterday we wanted to see the Merchant of Venice but we couldn't get tickets and so we saw the Czardas Princess. If you knew this operetta you would understand that I prefer Kalman to Shakespeare.'

§ 104. For esser 'to be' an optional irregular past era 'was, were' is available.

§ 105. The COMPOUND TENSES OF THE PAST (perfect and pluperfect) are formed as in English by means of the present and past of an auxiliary verb (haber 'to have) and the past participle.
 
 
 
 

io, tu, etc. ha create, vidite, audite 'I, you, etc. have created, seen, heard'
 
 

io, tu, etc. habeva create, vidite, audite 'I, you, etc. had created, seen, heard (listened)
 

§ 106. The functions of the past compound tenses cover all functions of the corresponding English forms. The perfect is not as restricted as is English and is synonymous with the simple past. Su Majestate ha perdite su capite 'His Majesty has lost his head'

Ludovico Dece-Sex ha perdite su capite 'Louis XVI lost his head'

------
Future
------

§ 107. The FUTURE is formed from the infinitive by adding the stressed ending -a, not distinguished by an accent mark.

io, tu, etc. creara, videra, audira 'I, you, etc. will create, see, hear (listen)'

-----------
Conditional
-----------

The CONDITIONAL is formed from the infinitive by adding the ending -ea with stress on the -e-, not distinguished by an accent mark.

io, tu, etc. crearea, viderea, audirea 'I, you, etc. would create, see, hear (listen)'
 

§ 108. The functions of the future and conditional do not differ from English usage.

Si ille attende assatis longe, ille habera un barba 'If he waits long enough, he will have a beard'

Si illa habeva quatro rotas, illa esserea un omnibus. 'If she had four wheels, she would be an omnibus'

Si io esseva un avetto, io volarea a te. 'If I were a little bird, I would fly to you'

Note: Both future and conditional have collateral compound forms consisting of the infinitive with the auxiliaries va and velle respectively.

Si ille attende assatis longe, ille va haber un barba

Si illa habeva quatro rotas, illa velle esser un omnibus

Si io esseva un avetto, io velle volar a te

§ 109. More complex verbal constructions -- whether one wishes to call them tenses or not -- can freely be formed by means of the material discussed above.

Nos haberea potite venir 'We would have been able to come'

Ille habera finite scriber 'He will have finished writing'

----------
Imperative
----------

§ 110. The IMPERATIVE is identical with the present but as a rule it uses no pronouns.

Ama tu vicino como te mesme! 'Love thy neighbor as thyself!'

Aperi le porta! 'Open the door!'

Reguarda hic! 'Look here!'

As in English the pronoun occurs occasionally with the imperative.

Face tu lo que io commands 'Do you what I order (you to do)'

§ 111. The functions of the imperative can of course be taken over by an emphatic present tense.

Tu veni hic immediatemente! 'You come here right away!'

For the use of the infinitive with imperative value, see § 91 above. The elliptic construction with que... '(I wish) that...' is possible with all persons and serves in particular to express the imperative of the first person plural.

Que ille veni! 'Let him come!, May he come!'
Que nos parti! 'Let's go!'

The dictionary word sia 'be (it)' may be construed as a conjunction or as an exceptional subjunctive of esser. Taken in the latter sense, it enters into constructions of imperative value.

Io ama lilios del valles, sia in le campo, sia in un vaso 'I love lilies of the valley, be it in the open, be it in a vase'

Le juvene maritos sia felice! '(May) The young couple be happy!'

Sia gentil e face me ille favor 'Be nice and do me that favor'

-------
Passive
-------

§ 112. The PASSIVE auxiliary is esser 'to be.' The tense forms of this auxiliary are fully covered by the foregoing discussion of the verbal conjugation. The following summary of them may be found convenient.


io etc. es           io essera or io va 
                     esser
'I am,' etc.         'I will be'
io esseva or io era  io esserea or io 
                     velle esser
'I was'              'I would be'

io ha essite         io habera essite or 
                     io va haber essite
'I have been'        'I will have been'
io habeva essite     io haberea essite
                     or io velle haber
                     essite
'I had been'         'I would have been'

The full passive forms consist of the auxiliary with a following past participle.

Ille es surveliate per le policia 'He is (being) watched by the police' Ille esseva surveliate per le policia
 
 
 
 
 

Ille ha essite surveliate per le policia Ille habeva essite surveliate per le policia Ille essera surveliate per le policia Ille va esser surveliate per le policia Ille esserea surveliate per le policia Ille velle esser surveliate per le policia Ille habera essite surveliate per le policia Ille va haber essite surveliate per le policia Ille haberea essite surveliate per le policia Ille velle haber essite surveliate per le policia § 113. The passive infinitives and participles are similarly composed of the infinitive and participles of the auxiliary with the past participle of the main verb following. esser surveliate 'to be watched' essente surveliate 'being watched' essite surveliate 'been watched' Note that the passive as such cannot be distinguished from a form of esser 'to be' with a participial adjective.

Io es maritate may mean 'I am being married' and 'I am married.'

§ 114. The functions of the passive are the same as in English. Note, however, the use of the reflexive in lieu of an English passive. See § 68 above. Furthermore an English passive may often be rendered by an impersonal construction with on 'one,' as in On non nos ama hic 'We are not liked around here (One does not like us here).'

§115 TABULA DE CONJUGATION
Infinitivo
Imperativo
cre-ar
crea!
vid-er
vide!
aud-ir
audi!
participio
   presente
   perfecte
 
cre-ante
cre-ate
 
vid-ente
vid-ite
 
aud-iente
aud-ite
ACTIVE
   Simple
     presente
     passato
     futuro
     conditional

   Perfecte
     presente
     passato
     futuro
     conditional
 
crea
creava
creara
crearea
 
ha create
habeva create
habera create
haberea create
 
vide
videva
videra
viderea
 
ha vidite
habeva vidite
habera vidite
haberea vidite
 
audi
audiva
audira
audirea
 
ha audite
habeva audite
habera audite
haberea audite
PASSIVE
   Simple
     presente
     passato
     futuro
     conditional

   Perfecte
     presente
     passato
     futuro
     conditional
 
es create
esseva create
essera create
esserea create
 
ha essite create
habeva essite create
habera essite create
haberea essite create
 
es vidite
esseva vidite
essera vidite
esserea vidite
 
ha essite vidite
habeva essite vidite
habera essite vidite
haberea essite vidite
 
es audite
esseva audite
essera audite
esserea audite
 
ha essite audite
habeva essite audite
habera essite audite
haberea essite audite

-----------
Le question
-----------

§116 Le QUESTION normal es representate per le typo anglese "Has he come?" Il ha nulle verbo auxiliar interrogative e le typo anglese "Does he come?" non pote esser usate.

Ha ille venite?
Veni ille?
Desira vos salsicias con o sin allio?
Transversava le rege svede le Mar Baltic o non?
 
 
 
 
 
 

Quando un parola interrogative es le subjecto, illo precede le verbo.

Qui es ille homine con le barba rubie?
Que batte a mi fenestra?
Que ha tu facite con tu moneta?
Quando arriva le traino?
Ubi es tu melior medietate?








Como in anglese omne enunciation normal pote esser cambiate a un question per intonation e per usar un signo de interrogation.

Le precio de ille cosalia esseva tres dollares?
Vos vole dicer me que vos non lo faceva?



Le particula interrogative an, que ha nulle equivalente in anglese, pote esser usate pro cambiar qualcunque enunciation a un question. Illo sempre occurre al initio del phrase.

An le precio de illo esseva tres dollars?
An vos vole dicer me que vos non lo ha facite?
An vos e vostre amica es reconciliate?



Nota: Un forma collateral del particula interrogative es esque; le duo formas, an e esque, non debe esser usate in le mesme texto.

------------------------
Le sequentia de tempores
------------------------

§117 Le SEQUENTIA DE TEMPORES pote esser tractate in conformitate con le usage anglese.

Ille diceva, "Io es fatigate."
Ille diceva que ille esseva fatigate.
 
 

Deviationes de iste usage es permissibile quando suggerite per considerationes logic.

Io non crede que un decimetro de lana pesa tanto como un decimetro de ferro.
Nemo diceva que tu debeva creder tal nonsenso.
Nemo diceva que tu debe creder tal nonsenso.

--------
Question
--------

§ 116. The normal QUESTION is represented by the English type 'Has he come?' There is no interrogative auxiliary and the English type 'Does he come?' cannot be used.

Ha ille venite?

Veni ille?

Desira vos salsicias con o sin allio?
'Do you want sausages with or without garlic?'

Transversava le rege svede le Mar Baltic o non?
'Did the Swedish king cross the Baltic or didn't he?'

When the question word is the subject, it is not preceded by the verb.

Qui es ille homine con le barba rubie?
'Who is that man with the red beard?'

Que batte a mi fenestra?
'What knocks at my window?'

Que ha tu facite con tu moneta?
'What have you done with your money?'

Quando arriva le traino?
'When does the train come in?'

Ubi es tu melior medietate?
'Where is your better half?'

As in English every normal statement can be turned into a question by intonation and the use of a question mark.

'The price of that stuff was three dollars?'
Le precio de ille cosalia esseva tres dollares?

'You mean to tell me that you did not do it?'
Vos vole dicer me que vos non lo faceva?

The interrogative particle an, which has no equivalent in English, can be used to change any statement into a question. It always occurs at the beginning of the sentence.

An le precio de illo esseva tres dollars?

An vos vole dicer me que vos non lo ha facite?

An vos e vostre amica es reconciliate?
'So you and your friend have made up?'

Note: A collateral form of the interrogative particle is esque; the two forms, an and esque, should not be used in the same text.

------------------
Sequence of tenses
------------------

§ 117. The SEQUENCE OF TENSES may be treated in accordance with English usage.

(Ille diceva: "Io es fatigate." 'He said: "I am tired." ')
Ille diceva que ille esseva fatigate 'He said that he was tired'

Deviations from this usage are permissible when suggested by logical considerations.

Io non crede que un decimetro de lana pesa tanto como un decimetro de ferro.
-- Nemo diceva que tu debeva creder tal nonsenso or Nemo diceva que tu debe creder tal nonsenso
'I do not believe that a decimeter of wool weighs as much as a decimeter of iron.
-- Nobody said that you had (have) to believe such nonsense.'

=========
NUMERALES
=========

----------
Cardinales
----------

§118 Le NUMERALES CARDINAL simple es:

0 zero
1 un      10 dece
2 duo     20 vinti
3 tres    30 trenta
4 quatro  40 quaranta
5 cinque  50 cinquanta
6 sex     60 sexanta
7 septe   70 septanta
8 octo    80 octanta
9 novem   90 novanta

Nota: Le deces (multiplos de dece) post
cinquanta es regularmente derivate del
unes (numeros inter un e novem) per le
suffixo -anta.
========
NUMERALS
========

-----------------
Cardinal numerals
-----------------

§ 118. The simple CARDINAL NUMERALS are:

0 zero
1 un        10 dece
2 duo       20 vinti
3 tres      30 trenta
4 quatro    40 quaranta
5 cinque    50 cinquanta
6 sex       60 sexanta
7 septe     70 septanta
8 octo      80 octanta
9 nove      90 novanta

Note: From cinquanta on the tens are 
regularly derived from the ones by 
means of the suffix -anta.
                          100 cento
                          1.000 mille
                          1.000.000 = (10^6) million      10^9 milliardo
                          10^12 = (10^6)^2  billion      10^15 billiardo
                          10^18 = (10^6)^3  trillion     10^21 trilliardo
                          10^24 = (10^6)^4  quatrillion  10^27 quatrilliardo
                          10^30 = (10^6)^5  quintillion  10^33 quintilliardo

                                                              100 cento
                                                            1,000 mille
                                                        1,000,000 million
                                                    1,000,000,000 milliardo
                                                1,000,000,000,000 billion
                                            1,000,000,000,000,000 billiardo
                                        1,000,000,000,000,000,000 trillion
                                    1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 trilliardo
                                1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 quatrillion
                            1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 quatrilliardo
                        1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 quintillion
                    1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 quintilliardo
Nota: Post (10^6)^5, le plus alte potentias de 
un million es formate regularmente per le 
suffixo -illion addite al radice del 
multiplicativo correspondente al exponente. 
Pro le formas del multiplicativos, vide 
§127 infra. Le numeral que representa un 
mille multiplicate per qualcunque potentia 
de un million es formate per reimplaciar le 
-ion final per le suffixo -iardo. 

Omne altere cardinales es formate per addition 
o multiplication.

§119 Le principio de addition es usate pro 
combinar deces con unes; centos con deces e 
unes; milles con centos, deces, e unes; 
milliones con milles, centos, deces, e unes, 
etc. Le numerales a adder es juxtaponite; le 
plus grande(s) precede. 
Exemplo:

1.120 mille cento vinti.

Sub un cento, le elementos juxtaponite es 
connectite per un tracto de union.

Exemplos:

72 septanta-duo;
11 dece-un;
12 dece-duo.

Le uso de e inter le elementos que es a adder 
es sempre possibile e sempre dispensabile. In 
summas sub un cento, illo reimplacia le 
tracto de union. 

Exemplos:

1.120 mille cento e vinti;
   72 septanta e duo.

§120 Le principio de multiplication es usate 
pro exprimer multiplos de cento, mille, e 
omne le plus alte potentias de mille, como 
million, milliardo, etc. 
Le multiplicator es un adjectivo que sempre 
precede le multiplicando. Le multiplicando es 
un substantivo que prende un desinentia 
plural normal.
Exemplos:

3.000.000 tres milliones; 
      200 duo centos.

Nota: Ante cento e mille le multiplicator 
'un' pote esser omittite. Omne le plus alte 
potentias del 1.000 - como million, milliardo, 
billion, etc. - introduce le objecto que illos 
conta per le preposition de.
Exemplo:
$10^12 un billion (1 000 000 000 000) de 
dollares.

§121 Il ha nulle differentia in forma inter 
numerales cardinal que es usate como 
adjectivos e pronomines excepte pro 'un', 
cuje formas pronominal coincide con illos del 
articulo indefinite (vide §21 supra).

§122 Exemplos de numerales cardinal:

            13 dece-tres
         8.347 octo milles tres centos 
               quaranta-septe
10.987.654.321 dece milliardos novem 
               centos octanta-septe 
               milliones sex centos 
               cinquanta-quatro milles 
               tres centos vinti-un

Le mille-pedes ha perdite quatro centos
novanta-novem pedes; illo totevia ha cinque 
centos un.




In bon tempores ille emplea plus que cento 
filanderas in su filanda; nunc ille ha 
travalio pro exactemente quaranta-una.




§123 DECIMALES es scribite e legite con un 
comma in loco de un puncto:

34,798 trenta-quatro comma septe novem octo


Nota : Le usage anglese de separar numerales 
longe per comma (p.ex., 1,234,567,890) 
confligerea con le comma decimal. In su loco 
Interlingua usa le puncto; 
p.ex. 1.234.567.890

§124 Exemplos de como leger regulas
arithmetic:

14 + 3,4 = 17,4 dece-quatro plus tres comma 
                quatro es dece-septe comma 
                quatro
20 - 102 = -82 vinti minus cento duo es minus 
               octanta duo
 20 x 17 = 340 vinti vices dece-septe es tres 
               centos quaranta    
100/3 = 33,3333 cento dividite per tres es 
                trenta-tres comma tres tres 
                tres tres


---------
Ordinales
---------

§125 Le NUMERALES ORDINAL es adjectivos que 
ha omne le characteristicas de altere 
adjectivos in respecto al uso pronominal e 
substantivate. Le ordinales basic (e lor 
formas numeric) es:

  prime  1me
secunde  2nde
 tertie  3tie
 quarte  4te
 quinte  5te
  sexte  6te
septime  7me
 octave  8ve
   none  9ne
 decime  10me
 ultime

Omne altere ordinales simple es derivate del 
cardinales correspondente per le suffixo 
-esime:
    vintesime    20me
   trentesime    30me
    centesime   100me
    millesime 1.000me
 millionesime 1.000.000me
milliardesime 1.000.000.000me

In numerales composite solmente le ultime 
elemento porta le forma de un ordinal:

    dece-prime  11me
 cento secunde 102nde
  novanta-none  99ne
tres centesime 300me

le duo cento cinquantesime anniversario ...


Isto es mi tertie (presumibilemente: cocktail).


In numerales arabic le ordinales son presentate
sequentemente:

1me  2nde  3tie  4te   5te  6te  7me
8ve  9ne   10me  20me  100me

§126 Le adjectivo FRACTIONAL anglese
{half} es medie, le substantivo
correspondente medietate. Jungite al
substantivo sequente, medie- ha le valor
de {mid-} in anglese. 

un medie hora ...


duo medie horas ...
le duo medietates ...



duo e medie horas ...
duo horas e medie ...


le medietate del membros ...


le medie membros (i.e. membros con
derectos limitate)

mediedie ...


medienocte ...


Omne altere numerales fractional es formate 
secundo le patronos sequente:
Expressiones como {a fourth part}, {two fifth 
parts}, {one sixth part}, etc. es exprimite 
como in anglese per ordinales simple: un 
quarte parte, duo quinte partes, un sexte 
parte, etc. In le plus grande numero de casos, 
expressiones fractional differe del exemplos 
date per le absentia de parte. In su loco, le
ordinales se cambia a substantivos. Nota que 
le modello {three quarter mile} debe sempre 
esser rendite como {three fourths of a mile: 
tres quartos de un millia.}

Tres quartos plus tres octavos es un e un 
octavo. 


Un medie hora e un quarto de hora es tres 
quartos de hora.



In numeros mixte que es usate como adjectivos 
numeral, le fraction pote sequer le 
substantivo.

un pan e tres quartos ...


duo milliones e tres quintos de 
prisioneros ...

--------------- 
Multiplicativos
--------------- 

§127 Le adjectivos numeral
MULTIPLICATIVE es:

simple    o simplice
duple     o duplice
triple    o triplice
quadruple
quintuple
sextuple
septuple
octuple
nonuple
decuple
centuple


§128 COMPOSITOS MULTIPLICATIVE
({half-yearly}, {threedecker}, etc.) pote 
esser formate liberemente secundo le modellos 
sequente in le quales le formas del numerales 
functiona como prefixos in compositos. Nota 
que compositos de iste categoria pote
involver derivation simultanee (secundo le 
modello anglese {three-cornered} que es non 
simplemente un composito de {three} e 
{cornered}, sed un derivato composite de 
{three} e {corner} con le suffixo {-ed}). 
Vide etiam §§155, 163-164 infra. Le 
methodos de composition illustrate pote esser
applicate equalmente e indifferentemente - 
intra le limites de necessitate practic pro 
nove formationes - a substantivos, 
adjectivos, e verbos.

Un:
uni- =
un.
uni- + trinitate ->
unitrinitate;
uni- + corno + -e (adj) ->
unicorne;
uni- + latere + -al ->
unilateral;
nove formationes:
uni- + monte -> unimonte: monte singule;
uni- + anulo + -ate -> unianulate;


Nota: Le forma mono-, ante vocales mon-,
es usate como un synonymo de
unispecialmente in terminos technic.

Un e un medie:
sesqui- = un e un medie.
sesqui- + plano -> sesquiplano: biplano
        con un curte subplano;
sesqui- + pede + -al -> sesquipedal;

nove formationes:

sesqui- + torno -> sesquitorno:
        un-e-un-medie torno;
sesqui- + uncia + -al -> sesquiuncial:
        de un uncia e medie (in longor);

Duo:

bi- = duo. bi- + cyclo -> bicyclo; bi- + metallo + -ismo -> bimetallismo; bi- + furcar -> bifurcar; bi- + lingua + -e (adj) -> bilingue; nove formationes: bi- + vita + -ate -> bivitate: habente duo vitas; bi- + digito + -e (adj) -> bidigite: habente duo digitos; bi- + franger -> bifranger: franger duo vices; Nota: Le forma di- es usate como un synonymo de bi- specialmente in terminos technic. Medie: semi- = medie. semi- + deo -> semideo; semi- + official -> semiofficial; semi- + somno + -e (adj) -> semisomne; nove formationes: semi- + professor -> semiprofessor; semi- + occider -> semioccider; semi- + interessante -> semiinteressante; Nota: Le forma hemi- es usate como un synonymo plus rar de semi- specialmente in terminos technic. Tres: tri- = tres. tri- + folio -> trifolio; tri- + secar -> trisecar; tri- + dimension + -al -> tridimensional; tri- + angulo + -e (adj) -> triangule: habente tres angulos; Quatro: quadri- = quatro. quadri- + syllaba + -e (adj) -> quadrisyllabe; quadri- + anno: year + -al -> quadriennal; Nota: Le forma tetra-, ante vocales tetr-, es usate como un synonymo preferite de quadri- specialmente in terminos technic. Cinque, sex, septe, octo, dece-duo: penta- = cinque. penta- + metro -> pentametro; hexa- = sex. hexa- + chordo -> hexachordo; hepta- = septe. hepta- + -archia -> heptarchia: governamento per septe; octa- = octo. octa- + metro -> octametro; dodeca- = dece-duo. dodeca- + syllaba + -e (adj) -> dodecasyllabe; Nota: Le formas penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, e dodeca- es usate como mono-, di-, e tetra-; il es, specialmente in terminos technic e con le characteristica special que illos perde lor -a final ante un vocal. Dece, cento, mille: Compositos multiplicative que involve 10, 100, e 1000 es importante primarimente per virtute de lor uso como expressiones de unitates de mesura in le systema metric e su extensiones technologic. Multiplication per 10, 100, 1000, e 10.000 es exprimite per deca-, hecto-, kilo-, e myria- respectivemente. Le forma parallel pro multiplication per 1/10, 1/100, e 1/1000 es deci-, centi-, e milli-. Le -a e -o final in deca-, myria-, e hecto- es omittite ante un vocal initial del secunde elemento de composito. Nove formationes analoge es possibile quandocunque requirite pro necessitates technologic e pertinente. Le forma myria- pote esser usate in formationes general (non-technic) con le signification 'un grande numero de'. Un illustration traditional es: litro: decilitro, centilitro, millilitro, decalitro, hectolitro, kilolitro, myrialitro

Un formation analoge possibile es unitate: unitate: deciunitate, centiunitate, milliunitate, decaunitate, hectunitate, kilounitate, myriunitate Multe(s): multi- = multe. multi- + million + -ario -> multimillionario; multi- + polo + -ar -> multipolar; multi- + lobo + -e (adj) -> multilobe; nove formationes: multi- + cyclo -> multicyclo: cyclo con plus que tres rotas; multi- + linea + -ate -> multilineate: habente multe lineas; Nota: Le forma poly- es usate como un synonymo de multi- specialmente in terminos technic. A exprimer pluralitate in le senso de multiplication per plures in vice de per multes, le forma pluri- es preferite. §129
Le NUMERALES COLLECTIVE es formate secundo le modello de dozena con le suffixo -ena attachate al cardinales simple. Illes arrivava in centenas. Illos se vende in decenas. Nota: Un serie complete de collectivos pote haber nulle importantia practic, sed es theoreticamente possibile. Si desirate, le prime duo debe esser formate irregularmente como bina (un gruppo de duo) e trina (un gruppo de tres). §130 NUMEROS ADVERBIAL es derivate de ordinales o per le suffixo adverbial normal -mente o per le desinentia -o que prende le loco del -e final de adjectivos: tertio, ultimo, etc. Post toto, ille es primemente mi fratre e secundemente mi adversario politic. Ecce tres possibilitates: Primo, mi opinion es absurde; secundo, mi opinion es theoricamente correcte, sed impractic; e tertio, mi opinion es tanto correcte como practic. Exprimite in formas numeric, le adverbios numeral differe de ordinales in terminar in -o: 1mo, 2ndo, 3tio, etc. Vide §125 supra. §131 Le FUNCTIONES DE NUMERALES differe pauco del usage anglese. Como in anglese on pote per exemplo dicer, 'capitulo tres' o 'le tertie capitulo'. Totevia, in le numeration de soveranos, contrari al usage anglese, cardinales appositive es usate excepte in le caso del prime ubi un ordinal substantivate sequente sin articulo es usate. Napoleon III (Napoleon Tres) Henrico LXVII de Reuss (Henrico Sexanta-Septe de Reuss) Frederico I (Frederico Primo) Catharina I (Catharina Prima) §132 In DATAS, le die del mense es indicate per un cardinal. Pro le prime die, un ordinal substantivate es permissibile. le 1 de januario (le un de januario) ... le 12 de novembre (le dece-duo de novembre) ... - Heri esseva le vinti-octo de februario e hodie es le vinti-novem. - No, hodie es le prime de martio. §133 Le HORA DE DIE es indicate secundo le modellos sequente: Il es un. Il es un hora. a un ... a un hora ... Il es tres. Il es tres horas. a tres ... a tres horas ... dece e quarte ... dece horas e quarte ... dece minus quarte ... dece horas minus quarte ... dece e medie ... dece horas e medie ... dece e vinti ... dece horas e vinti minutas ... dece minus vinti... dece horas minus vinti minutas ...

Note: From 1,000,000^5 on, the higher powers of 
a million are formed regularly by means of the 
suffix -illion added to the stem of the 
multiplicative corresponding to the exponent. 
For the forms of the multiplicatives, see 
below § 127. The numeral representing a 
thousand times any power of one million is 
formed by replacing the final -ion by the 
suffix -iardo.

All other cardinals are formed by addition or 
multiplication.

§ 119. The principle of addition is used to 
combine tens with ones; hundreds with tens 
and ones; thousands with hundreds, tens, and 
ones; millions with thousands, hundreds, tens, 
and ones, etc. The items to be added are 
juxtaposed, the bigger one preceding. 
Example: 

1,120 mille cento vinti. 

Below a hundred the juxtaposed items are 
connected by a hyphen.

Examples:

72 septanta-duo; 
11 dece-un; 
12 dece-duo. 

The use of e 'and' between the items to be 
added is always possible and always 
dispensable. In sums below a hundred it 
replaces the hyphen. 

Examples:

1,120 mille cento e vinti; 
   72 septanta e duo.

§ 120. The principle of multiplication is 
used to express multiples of cento, mille, 
and all higher powers of mille, as million, 
milliardo, etc.
The multiplier is an adjective which always 
precedes the multiplicand. The multiplicand 
is a noun which takes a normal plural ending.

Examples:

3,000,000 tres milliones; 
      200 duo centos.

Note: Before cento and mille the multiplier 
un may be omitted. All the higher powers of 
1,000 -- as million, milliardo, billion, 
etc. -- introduce the object they count by 
the preposition de. 
Example:
$10^12
un billion (1 000 000 000 000) de dollares.

§ 121. There is no difference in form between 
cardinal numerals used as adjectives and 
pronouns except for un 'one,' whose pronominal  
forms coincide with those of the indefinite 
article (see § 21 above).

§ 122. Examples of cardinal numerals:

            13 dece-tres
         8,347 octo milles tres centos 
               quaranta-septe
10,987,654,321 dece milliardos nove centos 
               octanta-septe milliones sex 
               centos cinquanta-quatro milles 
               tres centos vinti-un


Le mille-pedes ha perdite quatro centos 
novanta-nove pedes; illo totevia ha cinque 
centos un 
'The millepede has lost four hundred and 
ninety-nine feet; it still has five hundred 
and one.'

In bon tempores ille emplea plus que cento 
filanderas in su filanda; nunc ille ha 
travalio pro exactemente quaranta-una
'In good times he employs more than a hundred 
girls in his spinning mill; now he has work 
for exactly forty-one.'

§ 123. DECIMALS are written and read with a 
comma instead of a period:

34.798 (thirty-four point seven nine eight)
34,798 (trenta-quatro comma septe nove octo).

Note: The English custom of setting off long 
numbers by a comma (e.g., 1,234,567,890) 
would conflict with the decimal comma. In its 
stead the Interlingua uses a period 
(e.g. 1.234.567.890).

§ 124. Model readings of arithmetical rules:


14 + 3,4 = 17,4 (dece-quatro plus tres comma 
                quatro es dece-septe comma 
                quarto)
20 - 102 = -82 (vinti minus cento duo es minus
               octanta duo)
20 X 17 = 340
(vinti vices dece-septe es tres centos 
quaranta)
100 + 3 = 33,3333
(cento dividite per tres es trenta-tres 
comma tres tres tres tres)

----------------
Ordinal numerals
----------------

§ 125. The ORDINAL NUMERALS are adjectives 
sharing all characteristics of other 
adjectives in regard to pronominal and 
substantivized use. The basic ordinals are:


1st prime
2nd secunde
3rd tertie
4th quarte
5th quinte
6th sexte
7th septime
8th octave
9th none
10th decime
last ultime

All other simple ordinals are derived from 
the corresponding cardinals by the suffix 
-esime:
                20th vintesime
                30th trentesime
               100th centesime
             1,000th millesime
         1,000,000th millionesime
     1,000,000,000th milliardesime

In compound numerals only the last element is 
given the form of an ordinal:

11th dece-prime    102nd cento secunde
99th novanta-none  300th tres centesime



'The two hundred fiftieth anniversary'
le duo cento cinquantesime anniversario

'This is my third (presumably: cocktail)'
Isto es mi tertie

In Arabic numerals the ordinals are expressed 
as follows:

1me  2nde  3tie  4te   5te  6te  7me
8ve  9ne   10me  20me  100me

§ 126. The FRACTIONAL adjective 'half' is 
medie, the corresponding noun medietate. 
Joined to the following noun, medie- has the 
value of English
'mid-.'

un medie hora
'half an hour (a half hour)'

duo medie horas
'two half hours';

le duo medietates
'the two halves'

duo e medie horas, duo horas e medie
two and a half hours, two hours and a half

le medietate del membros
'half the members'

le medie membros
'the half members (opposed to 'full members')'

mediedie
'midday';

medienocte
'midnight'

All other fractional numerals are formed after 
the following patterns: 
Phrases like 'a fourth part, two fifth parts, 
one sixth part, etc.' are expressed as in 
English by means of simple ordinals: un 
quarte parte, duo quinte partes, un sexte 
parte, etc. In most cases fractions are 
expressed in phrases differing from the 
samples given by the absence of 'part' parte. 
Instead the ordinals are made into nouns. 
Note that the model 'three quarter mile' must
always be rendered as 'three fourths of a 
mile.'

Tres quartos plus tres octavos es un e un 
octavo 'Three fourths and three eighths is 
one and one eighth'

Un medie hora e un quarto de hora es tres 
quartos de hora
'Half an hour and a quarter hour is three 
quarter hours'

In mixed numbers which are used as numeral 
adjectives, the fraction follow the noun.


un pan e tres quartos
'one and three quarter loaves of bread'

duo milliones e tres quintos de prisioneros
'two and three fifths million prisoners'

--------------
Multiplicative
--------------

§ 127. The MULTIPLICATIVE numeral adjectives 
are: 

simple 
or simplice 'simple'
duple or duplice 'double'
triple or triplice 'triple'
quadruple 'quadruple'
quintuple 'quintuple'
sextuple 'sixfold'
septuple 'sevenfold'
octuple 'eightfold'
nonuple 'ninefold'
decuple 'tenfold'
centuple 'hundredfold'

§ 128. MULTIPLICATIVE COMPOUNDS 
('half-yearly,' 'threedecker,' etc.) can be 
formed freely after the following models in 
which the compounding forms of the numerals 
function as prefixes. Note that compounds of 
this category may involve simultaneous 
derivation (after the model of English 
'three-cornered' which is not simply a 
compound of 'three' and 'cornered' but a 
compounded derivative of 'three' and 'corner' 
with the suffix '-ed'). Cf. also §§ 155, 
163-164 below. The compounding methods 
illustrated may be applied equally and 
indifferently -- within the limits of 
practical needs for new formations -- to 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs.


One:
uni- plus trinitate yields unitrinitate
'unitrinity' plus como 'horn' plus adj. 
ending yields unicorne 'one-horned' plus 
latere 'side' plus -at yields unilateral




New formations:
uni- plus monte 'mountain' yields unimonte 
'single mountain' plus anulo 'ring' plus -ate 
yields unianulate 'one-ring'

Note: The form mono-, before vowels mon-, is 
used as a synonym of uni- especially in 
technical terms.

One and one half:
sesqui- plus plano yields sesquiplano 
'biplane with short underplane' plus pede 
'foot' plus -al yields sesquipedal
'sesquipedalian'

New formations:

sesqui- plus torno 'turn' yields sesquitorno 
'one-and-a-half turn' plus uncia 'inch' plus 
-al yields sesquiuncial 'one and a half 
inches (in length)'

Two:

bi- plus cyclo yields bicyclo 'bicycle'
plus metallo plus -ismo yields bimetallismo 
'bimetallism' plus furcar yields bifurcar 'to 
bifurcate' plus lingua 'language' plus adj. 
ending yields bilingue 'bilingual'


New formations:

bi- plus vita plus -ate yields bivitate 
'two-lived, having two lives' plus digito 
'finger' plus adj. ending yields bidigite 
'two-fingered' plus franger 'to break' yields 
bifranger 'to break twice'

Note: The form di- is used as a synonym of bi- 
especially in technical terms.


Half:

semi- plus deo 'god' yields semideo 'half-god'
plus official yields semiofficial
plus somno 'sleep' plus adj. ending yields 
semisomne 'half asleep'

New formations:

semi- plus professor yields semiprofessor plus 
occider 'to kill' yields semioccider 'to half 
kill'
plus interessante 'interesting' yields 
semiinteressante 'fifty-fifty interesting'

Note: The form hemi- is used as a rarer 
synonym of semi- especially in technical terms.


Three:
tri- plus folio 'leaf' yields trifolio 
'trefoil, clover' plus secar 'to cut' yields 
trisecar 'to trisect' plus dimension plus -al 
yields tridimensional 'three-dimensional' plus 
angulo plus adj. ending yields triangule 
'three-cornered'


Four:

quadri- plus syllabo plus adj. ending yields 
quadrisyllabe 'four-syllabic' plus anno 'year' 
plus -al yields quadriennal 'four-yearly'


Note: The form tetra-, before vowels tetr- is 
used as a preferred synonym of quadri- 
especially in technical terms.


Five, six, seven, eight, twelve:
penta- plus metro yields pentametro 
'pentameter' hexa- plus chordo yields 
hexachordo 'hexachord' hepta- plus -archia 
yields heptarchia 'rule by seven' octa- plus 
metro yields octametro 'octameter' dodeca- 
plus syllabo plus adj. ending yields 
dodecasyllabe 'twelve-syllabled'





Note: The forms penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, 
and dodeca- are used like mono-, di-, and 
tetra-, that is, especially in technical terms 
and with the special characteristic that they 
lose their final -a before a vowel.


Ten, hundred, thousand:

Multiplicative compounds involving 10, 100, 
and 1000 are important primarily by virtue of 
their use as expressions of units of 
measurement in the metric system and its 
technological extensions. Multiplication by 
10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 is expressed by 
deca-, hecto-, kilo-, and myria- 
respectively. The parallel forms for 
multiplication by 1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000 
are deci-, centi-, and milli-. The finals 
-a- and -o- in deca-, myria-, and hecto- are 
dropped before an initial vowel of the 
second compounding element. New analogical 
formations are possible whenever required 
for technological and related needs. The 
form myria- can be used in general 
(nontechnical) formations with the meaning 
'a great many.' A traditional illustration 
is: 


litro 'liter,' decalitro 'ten liters,' 
decilitro 'one tenth of a liter,' hectolitro 
'a hundred liters,' centilitro 'one 
hundredth of a liter,' kilolitro 'a thousand 
liters,' millilitro 'one thousandth of a
liter,' myrialitro 'ten thousand liters.' 
A possible analogical formation is unitate
'unit,' deciunitate 'ten units,'deciunitate
'one tenth of a unit,' hectunitate 'one
hundred units,' centiunitate 'one hundredth
of a unit,' kilounitate 'one thousand
units,' milliunitate 'one thousandth of a
unit,' myriunitate 'ten thousand units.'

Many:
multi- plus millions + -ario yields multimillionario 
multi- plus polo 'pole' plus -ar yields multipolar 
multi- plus lobo 'lobe' plus adj. ending yields 
   multilobe 'multilobed'

New formations:

multi- plus cyclo yields multicyclo 'cycle
   with more than three wheels' 
multi- plus linea 'line' plus -ate yields
   multilineate 'many-lined'


Note: The form poly- is used as a synonym of
multi- especially in technical terms. To
express plurality in the sense of
multiplication by several rather than by
many, the form pluri- is preferred.


§ 129. The COLLECTIVE NUMERALS are formed
after the model of dozena 'dozen' with the
suffix -ena attached to the simple cardinals


Illes arrivava in centenas
'They arrived in groups of a hundred'

Illos se vende in decenas
'They are sold in batches of ten'

Note: A complete set of collectives would
have no practical importance but is
theoretically possible. If wanted, the first
two would have to be formed irregularly as
bina 'a group of two' and trina 'a group of
three.'

§ 130. ADVERBIAL NUMERALS are derived from
the ordinals either by the normal adverbial
suffix -mente or by the ending -o which
takes the place of the final -e of
adjectives: tertio 'thirdly'; ultimo
'lastly'; etc.

Post toto, ille es primemente mi fratre e
secundemente  mi adversario politic
'After all, he is first my brother and
secondly my political opponent'

Ecce tres possibilitates: 
Primo, mi opinion es absurde; 
secundo, mi opinion es theoricamente
correcte sed impractic;
e tertio, mi opinion es tanto correcte como
practic.
'There are three possibilities: 
First, my view is absurd; 
second, my view is theoretically correct but
impractical; 
and third, my view is a s correct as
practical'

Expressed in Arabic numerals the numeral
adverbs differ from ordinals in that they
end in -o: 1mo, 2ndo, 3tio, etc. See § 125
above.

§ 131. The FUNCTIONS OF NUMERALS differ
little from English usage. As in English one
may for instance say, capitulo tres 'chapter
three' or le tertie capitulo 'the third
chapter.' However, in the numbering of
sovereigns, contrary to English usage,
appositional cardinals are used except in
the case of the first where a following
substantivized ordinal without article is
used.

Napoleon III (Napoleon Tres)
'Napoleon the Third'

Henrico LXVII de Reuss (Henrico
Sexanta-Septe)
'Henry the Sixty-Seventh of Reuss'

Frederico I (Frederico Primo)
'Frederic the First'

Catharina I (Catharina Prima)
'Catherine the First'

§ 132. In DATES the day of the month is
indicated by a cardinal. For the first day a
substantivized ordinal is permissible.

le 1 de januario (le un de januario)
'the first of January'

le 12 de novembre (le dece-duo de novembre)
'the twelfth of November'

Heri esseva le vinti-octo de februario e hodie 
es le vinti-nove. – No, hodie es le
prime de martio.
'Yesterday was the twenty-eighth of February 
and today is the twenty-ninth. – No, today 
is the first of March.'

§ 133. The TIME OF DAY is stated after the
following models:

il es un (hora); a un (hora)
'it is one (o'clock); at one (o'clock)'

il es tres (horas); a tres (horas)
'it is three (o'clock); at three (o'clock)'

dece (horas) e quarte
'a quarter past ten (o'clock)'

dece (horas) minus quarte
'a quarter of ten (o'clock)' 

dece (horas) e medie
'half past ten (o'clock)'

dece (horas) e vinti (minutas)
'twenty (minutes) past ten (o'clock)'

dece (horas) minus vinti (minutas)
'twenty (minutes) of ten (o'clock)'

====================
PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC
====================

§134 Nota: Le spheras de grammatica e vocabulario imbrica proque ambes se preoccupa de ille "parve parolas" que es necessari pro exprimer le relation inter le vocabulos o expressiones que constitue un enunciation complete. Iste parolas, hic pro convenientia nominate "particulas grammatic," ha functiones grammatic. Assi illos es classificate generalmente non in un proprie categoria, sed como prepositiones, conjunctiones, pronomines, adverbios, e similes.

Ab le puncto de vista de Interlingua "particulas grammatic," totevia, forma un gruppo de significantia peculiar proque lor extension international comparate con le grande majoritate de vocabulos de Interlingua es assatis restricte. Pro le majoritate del usatores de Interlingua le "particulas grammatic" constitue le unic obstaculo seriose in apprender le lingua.

Le extension restricte de internationalitate del "particulas grammatic" es debite al facto que lor equivalentes in le varie linguas national es si intimemente associate con cosas basic de structura grammatic que illos non pare haber invadite le dominio de altere linguas a grande mesura. Un parola francese como {cigarette} ha cambiate al anglese sin multe difficultate; le parola francese {sans} como usate in le anglese retene su sapor estranier post multe seculos.
 

Pro illustrar ulteriormente: Le parlator de un altere lingua - que nos dice un francese - pote trovar difficile comprender le enunciation anglese simple: --- Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town.

Ille es adjutate per le version: --- Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town.

E como un ultime recurso, il ha in plus le possibilitate que ille pote comprender le version: --- Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city.

Le prime version se compone de parolas specificamente anglese. Le ultime version usa in vice, in tanto que possibile, variantes anglese de parolas international que un francese comprende proque illos occurre in su proprie lingua - in formas un pauco differente, i.e. specificamente francese.

Con un grado major o minor de artificio, il es possibile parlar e scriber qualcunque lingua occidental in vocabulos que es quasi integremente variantes national de materia representate in le vocabulario international. Sed il remane in omne casos un corpore substantial de vocabulos que resiste a iste artificio de internationalisar un lingua national. In le exemplo justo usate, iste corpore de recalcitrante vocabulos es representate con parolas como {our}, {to}, {after}, {we}, {from}, e {the}. Omne istes es particulas grammatic ben que alicunes, como {after} e {we}, combina un function grammatic con un significato clarmente palpabile.

Le Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) include un stock multo liberal de particulas grammatic. In addition al particulas que es international secundo le definition functionante del termino in le Dictionario, il ha numerose formas que pareva compatibile con le character general del vocabulario international assi que lor inclusion poteva servir a allargar le appello e le utilitate del Dictionario.
 

Un lista minimal de particulas grammatic seque. Iste lista se restringe al particulas considerate indispensabile pro le operation del lingua e pote esser supplementate per material additional - specialmente expressiones con functiones grammatic - prendite del IED. Un numero de parolas que le IED lista in duo equalmente correcte formas appare in basso solmente in un alternativa. Isto non implica que le secunde es considerate minus desirabile. Le pares in question es:

=================
GRAMMATICAL WORDS
=================

§ 134 Note: The spheres of grammar and vocabulary overlap in that both are concerned with those "little words" which are needed to express the relationship between the words or phrases making up a complete statement. These words are grammatical functionaries (here conveniently labeled "grammatical words"), and as such they are generally classed not in a special category of their own but as prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, adverbs, and the like.

From the point of view of Interlingua "grammatical words" do, however, form a group of peculiar significance because their international range compared with that of the bulk of Interlingua words is fairly restricted. For most users of Interlingua the "grammatical words" constitute the one and only serious learning obstacle.
 

The restricted international range of "grammatical words" is due to the fact that their counterparts in the various national languages are so closely associated with matters of basic grammatical structure that they seem to be prevented from invading the realm of other languages on a large scale. A French word like cigarette has turned English without much trouble; the French word sans as used in English retains its foreign flavor after these many centuries.

To illustrate further: The speaker of another language - let us say a Frenchman - may find it difficult to understand the simple English statement: "Our guests started coming in right after we got back from town."

He may be helped by the version: "Our visitors began to arrive right after we returned from town."

And as a last resort there is still the possibility that he may understand the version: "Our visitors commenced to arrive immediately after we returned from the city."

The first version is composed of peculiarly English words. The last version uses instead as far as possible the English variants of international words which the Frenchman understands because they occur - in slightly different, that is, peculiarly French forms - in his own language.

With a greater or lesser degree of artifice it is possible to speak and write any one of the Western languages in words which are almost entirely national variants of material represented in the international vocabulary. But there remains in all cases a substantial body of words which resist this trick of internationalizing a national language. In the example just used this body of recalcitrants is represented by words like our, to, after, we, from, and the. All of them are grammatical words although some of them, as after and we, combine a grammatical function with a clearly palpable meaning.
 

The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) includes a very liberal supply of grammatical words. In addition to those which happen to be international in accordance with the Dictionary's working definition of the term, there are numerous forms which seemed compatible with the general character of the international vocabulary so that their inclusion could serve to broaden the appeal and usefulness of the Dictionary.

A minimum list of grammatical words follows. It is restricted to items considered indispensable for the operation of the language and may be enlarged by further material - especially phrases with grammatical functions - drawn from the IED. A number of words which the IED lists in two equally correct forms appears below in one alternate only. This does not imply that the second is considered less desirable. The pairs in question are:


                                         alicun     alcun
                                         aliquando  alquando
                                         aliquanto  alquanto
                                         alique     alco
                                         a pena     apena
                                         depost     depois
                                         haber      haver
                                         hic        ci
                                         illac      la
                                         illa       ella
                                         ille       celle
                                         jam        ja
                                         pauc       poc
                                         secundo    secun
                                         semper     sempre
                                         si non     sinon
                                         subinde    sovente
                                         tanto      tan
                                         vice       vece

Lista de particulas grammatic
Grammatical Words
a: to; at
ab: prep since, from
alias: otherwise, in another manner;
       alias; at another time
alibi: elsewhere
ali(c)-: any-, some
alicubi: somewhere; anywhere
alicun: some, any; a few;
alicun cosa: something, anything
alicuno: someone, somebody; anyone,
         anybody
aliquando: sometime; at any time
aliquanto: somewhat, to some degree
alique: pron something, anything;
        - adv somewhat
alora: then; in that case, consequently
alto: top; 
  in alto: up; upwards; upstairs; on top
ambe: adj both;
ambes: pron both
an: part interr-;
  an ille ha le libro?: has he the
  book?;
  - conj whether
ancora: adv still, yet;
  - interj encore
anque: also, too;
  anque io: me too; 
  non solo...ma anque:
  not only...but also
ante: prep before, in front of; earlier
      than; above;
- adv before, ahead, earlier, forward;
ante que: before
ante-heri: day before yesterday
a pena: hardly, scarcely
apud: near, with, at, by
assatis: adv enough; rather, fairly,
         quite
assi: thus, so;
assi...como: as...as
avante: before, in front, ahead; forward

basso: bottom; a basso: down, downward; in basso: down, below, downward; downstairs bastante: adj enough, sufficient; - adv enough, sufficiently ben que: although bis: twice; encore

cata: adj each; cata uno: each (one) causa: cause; a causa de: because of certo: certainly circa: around, about; approximately como: how; as, like; como si: as though, as if comocunque: however, in whatever way con: with, together with; by means of concernente: concerning contra: prep opposite, facing; against; - adv opposite, facing; on the contrary cuje: whose -cunque: -ever

de: from, since; of, belonging to; made of; with, by means of; de (+ inf): to deman: tomorrow; deman matino: tomorrow morning; deman vespere: tomorrow night depost: adv afterwards, later; - prep after, since; depost que: since, from the time that desde: prep since, from dum: while, as long as; until; provided that, if only dunque: therefore durante: during; durante que: while, whilst

e: and; e ... e: both ... and ecce: lo!, see!, behold!; here is, here are ergo: therefore, accordingly, consequently, then, ergo esque: part interr -; esque ille ha le libro?: has he the book? et cetera, etc.: and so forth, and so on, et cetera, etc. etiam: also, likewise, too; even, even yet, yet; non solmente ... sed etiam: not only ... but also ex: out of, from excepte: except, excepting extra: adv without, on the outside; besides, in addition, extra; - prep outside of, without, beyond; except, excepting; besides, in addition to

foras: adv out of doors, outside, out; from without; - prep beyond, except; foras de: outside of, without; foras de se: beside oneself forsan: perhaps, maybe

gratis: gratis, free of charge

haber: to have; il ha: there is, there are heri: yesterday hic: here; de hic a (un hora): (an hour) from now; usque (a) hic: up to here, thus far; up to now, hitherto; hic juncte: herewith hodie: today

ibi: there ibidem: in the same place; ibidem; ibid., ib. idem: the same (thing); idem; id. igitur: adv/conj then, therefore, thereupon il: impers pron it illa: she, her illac: there ille: he, it; him; that, the former illes: they; them illo: it in: in, into infra: adv below, underneath, beneath; - prep below, under, beneath insimul: together inter: between, among interim: meanwhile, in the meantime intertanto: meanwhile, in the meantime intra: adv/prep within intro: inwardly, internally, on the inside, in io: I ipse: myself, yourself, himself, etc.; hodie ipse: this very day iste: this, the latter ita: thus, so; just so, yes; and so, consequently; accordingly

jam: already, at once, right away; just now, a moment ago; indeed, surely; non ... jam: no longer jammais: ever, at any time; non ... jammais: never; jammais!: never! justo: just, exactly; justo nunc, justo ora: just now, right now juxta: adv near, near by; - prep near, near to, next to

la: her le: art the le: pron him les: them lo: it; lo que: that which, what loco: place; in loco de: instead of; in su loco: instead longe: far; away, far away; de longe: from afar, from a distance lontan: distant, far-off lor: their lore: their

ma: but; non solo...ma anque; not only...but also malgrado: in spite of maniera: manner, way; de maniera que: so that me: me melio: adv better; tanto melio: so much the better melior: adj better; le melior: the best mesme: same; myself, yourself, himself, etc. (as in "the king himself") mesmo: likewise; even; hodie mesmo: this very day; ora mesmo: right now mi: my mie: mine minus: less; minus; a minus que: unless; al minus: at least; totos minus ille: all but him; le minus: the least multo: very; much

nam: for nemo: no one, nobody ni: neither, nor, also not nihil, nil: nothing nimie: adj too much, too many nimis: adv too, too much no: adj no non: not; no; si non: if not; except, unless it be nondum: not yet nonne: part interr is it not?; il es ver, nonne?: it is true, isn't it? nonobstante: prep despite, in spite of; - adv nevertheless nos: us, we nostre: our, ours nulle: adj not any, no; null, worthless, without legal force nullemente: in no way, not at all nunc: now nunquam: never nusquam: nowhere

o: or;
o...o: either...or
olim: once, formerly; at a future time,
      sometime (in the future)
omne: adj all; each, every; de omne
      mano: from every hand;
  de omne latere: from every side; in
  omne caso: in any case;
omne cosa: everything;
omnes: pron all
on: one
ora: now

parte: part; a parte: apart, aside; in parte: in part; del parte de: on the part of; de parte a parte: through and through; in nulle parte: nowhere passato: ago pauc: adj little, not much; few; un pauc (de): a little; pauc a pauc: little by little; in pauc: shortly, before long pauco: adv little per: through; during, throughout; by, through, by means of; per perque: adv/conj why; because plus: more; plus; le plus: the most; de plus: furthermore, besides; de plus in plus: more and more; in plus: furthermore, in addition, also; al plus: at best; plus o minus: more or less; non ... plus: no more, no longer pois: adv afterwards, thereafter; - conj for; pois que: since, as, because post: adv behind, back, backwards; afterwards, after; - prep behind; after; post que: since, because postea: afterwards, thereafter postquam: conj after; as soon as potius: rather; sooner presso: adv/prep near, close; a presso de: at the home of; in care of; with, among presto: presto, quickly, quick as a wink preter: adj past, beyond; - prep past, along, alongside of; beyond; except, excepting; in addition to pridem: long ago pro: for, in favor of; in exchange for, in place of; pro (+ inf): (in order) to proque: adv/conj why; because

qual: which; what; le qual: which; that; who qualcunque: any, whatever quando: adv/conj when quandocunque: whenever quante: adj how much, how many quanto: adv as much as; as far as; quanto...tanto: the...the; quanto a: as for quare: wherefore, why quasi: almost, nearly; in a certain sense, in a way; quasi que: as if que: pron interr what; - pron rel who, whom, which, that qui: who, whom; de qui: whose quicunque: whoever, whomever, whosoever quia: because, for quo: adv whither, where; wherefore; - conj so that, in order that

re: about, concerning retro: back, backwards; ago; a retro: backwards

salvo: save, but, but for; salvo que: save that, but that satis: enough; rather, somewhat; esser satis: to be enough; haber satis: to have enough; satis de (tempore, etc.): enough (time, etc.) se: pron refl himself; herself; itself; themselves secundo: prep (following) after; along, by; according to; secundo que: according as sed: but semper: always si: adv thus, so; yes; si...como: as...as si: conj if; whether; si non: if not; except, unless it be sia: be, may be, let there be; sia...sia: be (it)...or be (it); whether...or; qual que sia: whatever, whatsoever sin: prep without sol: adj sole, alone, only; viver sol: to live alone; sentir se sol: to feel lonesome, lonely solo: adv only, merely; non solo...ma anque: not only ... but also su: his, her, its sub: prep under, below, beneath subinde: immediately after, just after, forthwith; repeatedly, frequently, often, from time to time subito: suddenly, unexpectedly subtus: adv below, beneath, underneath sue: his, hers, its super: prep on, upon; on top of; over, above; about, concerning, on; - adv above, on top; super toto: above all supra: prep above, over; - adv on the top, above sur: on, upon; on top of

tal: such, such a; tal e tal: such and such; talmente: adv so; un libro talmente belle: so beautiful a book, such a beautiful book tamen: yet, however, nevertheless, not withstanding tante: adj so much, so many; tante per cento: so much per hundred, percentage; tante...como: as much, as many...as tanto: adv so, so much; tanto...como: as much...as; in tanto que: in as much as; tanto plus...que: all the more...that; quanto...tanto: the...the tarde: adj late; plus tarde: later; later on; al plus tarde: at the latest te: you, thee; yourself, thyself tosto: presently, soon, promptly; plus tosto: rather, sooner; si tosto que: as soon as tote: adj all; every, each; tote le (homines): all (men); totos: all, everyone; de tote (le) corde: wholeheartedly; tote (le) duo: both totevia: yet, still, nevertheless toto: subst all, everything; le toto: the whole; super toto: above all; ante toto: before all; post toto: after all; del toto: at all; in toto: entirely, wholly, in toto toto: adv all, quite, wholly trans: across, over, beyond, on the farther side of troppo: too, too much; troppo (de) (libros, etc.): too many (books, etc.); troppo (de) (aqua, etc.): too much (water, etc.); de troppo: superfluous, in the way, de trop tu: your, thy tue: yours, thine tunc: then

ubi: adv where; - conj where; when; as soon as; wherewith; in which; a ubi: where, whither; de ubi: from where, whence ubicunque: wherever ubique: everywhere; anywhere, wheresoever, wherever ultra: adv on the other side, beyond, farther; - prep on the farther side of; beyond, past; besides; ultra illo: besides, moreover; ultra que: aside from the fact that un: a, an; le un le altere: one another, each other; le unes le alteres: one another, each other uno: pron indef one unquam: ever, at any time usquam: somewhere usque: prep (all the way) to, up to; till, until; usque nunc: up to now

verso: towards, to via: adv away; off; via!: go away!, begone!; - prep by way of, via vice: turn, stead; time (as in "three times"); alicun vices: sometimes; un vice: once; on one occasion; formerly; un vice que: once, once that; in vice de: instead of; a vices: at times; altere vice: a second time; plure vices: several times, repeatedly viste: considering; viste que: considering that voluntarie: willingly, readily, gladly, with pleasure vos: you; yourself, yourselves vostre: your, yours ya: adv indeed, certainly, of course; ya (io lo crede): (I) do (believe it)

=======================
CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS
=======================

§135 Le THEORIA DE CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS se refere al section "Introduction" del Interlingua-English Dictionary, pp. xlv-xlix. [*1*]

Le PRINCIPIO BASIC DE CONSTRUCTION PRACTIC DE PAROLAS in Interlingua es analoge. Omne le formationes nove debe clarmente esser modellate super un patrono in le vocabulario establite. Un description del patronos structural le plus commun in le vocabulario establite coincide con le prescription que governa nove formationes.
-----------------

[*1*] Le observationes sequente pote servir pro elucidar le problema. In un discussion de, que nos dice le verbo anglese, il es costumari prender un varietate de formationes sub le titulo de "formas finite special." Assi {interests} per exemplo es nominate le forma del tertie persona tempore presente del verbo {to interest}. Sed etiam le participios {interesting} e {interested} es tractate como formas del verbo ben que illos functiona bastante liberemente como adjectivos independente e pote etiam esser nominate derivatos. Il ha nihil improprie in isto, sed si le adjectivos {interesting} e {interested} es reguardate como formas special de {to interest}, alora il non es facile comprender proque il non pote esser permittite parlar non solmente, que nos dice, de {teaches}, {reteach}, {taught}, {teaching}, sed etiam de {teacher}, {teachings}, {teachery}, {teacherly}, {teacheress}, {school-teaching}, etc. como formas special de {to teach}.

Iste maniera satis original de reguardar "derivatos" es extrememente utile in un lingua auxiliar proque illo projecta un lumine multo clar super le principios de construer parolas libere- e autonomemente. Justo como in anglese nemo consulta un dictionario pro assecurar se si ille pote usar le forma {weighs} super le base del infinitivo {to weigh}, assi nemo - si anglese esseva un lingua auxiliar construite - deberea sentir le necessitate de consultar un dictionario ante construer vocabulos del typo {roachy} (de {roach} copiante le modello de {lousy}) o {deedlessness} (de {deedless}).

In anglese o in qualcunque altere lingua traditional, le convention e usage pone un limite impediente a iste typo de construction de vocabulos. Non es assi in Interlingua. Hic le limite es ponite per utilitate e claritate.

Le prime de iste punctos, illo de "utilitate", a pena ha necessitate de commentario ulterior. Interlingua - como qualcunque lingua traditional - pote construer grande numeros de "formas special" (o derivatos) de que on nunquam ha necessitate. Un {rainer} - pro usar un exemplo anglese - es 'un homine qui pluvia', sed pro le majoritate de gente il es un surprisa que iste parola es de facto listate in dictionarios.

Le prerequirimento de claritate duce al formulation que in le lingua auxiliar solo ille elementos formative pote esser tolerate in formationes libere e autonome que generalmente appare in omne partes del lingua con valores clarmente definibile. Si le formation anglese {mountibund} es impossibile, le ration non es que {to mount} e {-ibund} non occurre. Illos occurre. Sed {-ibund} es incapabile de formation active proque su occurrentia in {moribund} e {furibund} non revela un valor facilemente definibile.

Formationes libere debe esser si clar que il pare perfectemente logic parlar de illos como "formas special" del parola de base del qual illos es derivate.

In le paragraphos sequente le typos structural le plus importante es describite, illustrate, e applicate a nove formationes sub le titulos listate infra.

(I) DERIVATION
  (A) AB SUBSTANTIVOS
    (a) PRO FORMAR SUBSTANTIVOS
    (b) PRO FORMAR ADJECTIVOS
    (c) PRO FORMAR VERBOS
  (B) AB ADJECTIVOS
    (a) PRO FORMAR SUBSTANTIVOS
    (b) PRO FORMAR ADJECTIVOS
    (c) PRO FORMAR ADVERBIOS
    (d) PRO FORMAR VERBOS
  (C) AB VERBOS
(II) COMPOSITION
  (A) PER MEDIO DE PREFIXOS
    (a) GENERAL
    (b) TECHNIC
  (B) PER MEDIO DE FORMAS COMPOSITORI
(III) DERIVATION COMPOSITE
=============
WORD BUILDING
=============

§ 135. For the THEORY OF WORD BUILDING reference is made to the Interlingua-English Dictionary, "Introduction", pp. xlv-xlix.
[*1*]

The BASIC PRINCIPLE OF PRACTICAL WORD BUILDING in Interlingua is analogical. Every new formation must clearly be patterned after a model in the established vocabulary. A description of the most common structural patterns in the established vocabulary coincides with the prescription governing new formations.
-------------------

[*1*] The following observations may serve to elucidate the problem. In a discussion of let us say the English verb it is customary to take up a variety of formations under the heading of "special finite forms." Thus "interests" for instance is called the third-person present-tense form of the verb "to interest." But also the participles "interesting" and "interested" are treated as forms of the verb although they function quite freely as independent adjectives and might as well be called derivatives. There is nothing wrong in this, but if the adjectives "interesting" and "interested" are regarded as special forms of "to interest," then it is not easy to see why one should not be allowed to speak not only let us say of "teaches, reteach, taught, teaching" but also of "teacher, teachings, teachery, teacherly, teacheress, school-teaching, etc." as special forms of "to teach."
 
 

This somewhat unconventional way of looking at "derivatives" is extremely useful in an auxiliary language because it casts a very clear light on the principles of free or autonomous word building. Just as in English no one consults a dictionary to ascertain whether he may use the form "weighs" on the basis of the infinitive "to weigh," so no one -- if English were a constructed auxiliary language -- should feel the need to consult a dictionary before building words of the type of "roachy" (on "roach" after the model of "lousy") or "deedlessness" (on "deedless").

In English or any other traditional language convention and usage will set a hampering limit to this type of word building. Not so in Interlingua. Here the limit is set by usefulness and clarity.

The first of these points, that of "usefulness," is hardly in need of further comment. Interlingua – like any traditional language – can build large numbers of "special forms" (or derivatives) which no one ever needs. A "rainer" – to use an English example – is "man who rains," but to most people it will come as a surprise that this word is actually listed in dictionaries.

The prerequisite of clarity leads to the formulation that in the auxiliary language only those formative elements can be tolerated in free or autonomous formation which appear throughout the language as a wbole with clearly definable values. If the English formation "mountibund" is impossible, the reason is not that "to mount" and "-ibund" fail to occur. They do. But "-ibund" is incapable of active formation because its occurrence in "moribund" and "furibund" does not give it an easily definable value.

Free formations must be so clear that it makes perfect sense to speak of them as "special forms" of the base word from which they are derived.

In the succeeding paragraphs the most important structural types are described, illustrated, and applied to new formations under the headings listed below.

  I. DERIVATION
     A. FROM NOUNS
        a. TO FORM NOUNS
        b. TO FORM ADJECTIVES
        e. TO FORM VERBS
     B. FROM ADJECTIVES
        a. TO FORM NOUNS
        b. TO FORM ADJECTIVES
        c. TO FORM ADVERBS
        d. TO FORM VERBS
     C. FROM VERBS
 II. COMPOUNDING
     A. BY MEANS OF PREFIXES
        a. GENERAL
        b. TECHNICAL
     B. BY MEANS OF COMPOUNDING FORMS
III. COMPOUNDING DERIVATION
------------
I Derivation
------------

§136 Le termino DERIVATION es usate hic pro referer al formation de vocabulos per medio de suffixos. In le derivation, le parte de discurso del formation resultante es determinate per le suffixo. Substantivos e adjectivos que consiste de thema e termination perde le termination in le processo derivational. Le termination del derivato es parte del suffixo. Terminationes in iste senso es, in le caso de substantivos e adjectivos, le vocales final -a, -e, -o, e desinentias foranee como latin -us, -um, o grec -os, -is, etc. Pro verbos, vide §146 infra.

§137 In le plus de casos, le junction de thema e affixo es un question de juxtaposition simple.

Quando le thema termina in -i e le suffixo comencia con le mesme vocal, le derivato complete es scribite con un singule -i:
rubie + -ificar -> rubificar: facer rubie.

Nota que le addition de suffixos con vocales initial a themas que termina in -c pote cambiar le sono de ille consonante. Quando per derivation un originalmente dur -c (como in franc) precede -i o -e, le pronunciation cambia usualmente a un -c molle (como in Francia). Inversemente, quando un originalmente molle -c (como in cortice) per derivation precede un -a o -o, le pronunciation cambia usualmente a un -c dur (como in cortical). Nonobstante, un -c molle remane molle ante le suffixos -ada, -ata, -age, -alia, -astro, -astra e debe esser scribite -ci:
nuce + -ada -> nuciada.

Similarmente un -c dur remane dur ante le suffixos -eria, -ero, -esc, -ese, -essa, -etta, -ette, -etto, -iera, -iero, -issime, -issimo e debe esser scribite -ch:
porco + -eria -> porcheria: boteca de porco.

Nota que le apparente irregularitate de un exemplo como ric -> ricchessa es a causa del facto que -cc es scribite -c quando illo appare in le fin de un parola.

Vocabulos que termina in -age (sia iste gruppo de sonos un suffixo o non) retene le pronunciation molle de -g (como -z in anglese {azure}) in derivatos basate super illos. Quando le suffixo comencia in -a o -o, le -g es reimplaciate per -gi:

orange + -ada -> orangiada: bibita de orange;
sed
orange + -eria -> orangeria: conservatorio de oranges.

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Derivation
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§ 136. I. -- The term DERIVATION is here used to refer to word building by means of suffixes. In derivation the part of speech of the resulting formation is determined by the suffix. Nouns and adjectives consisting of stem and termination lose the latter in the derivational process. The termination of the derivative is part of the suffix. Terminations in this sense are, in the case of nouns and adjectives the final vowels a, e, o, and foreign endings like Latin -us, -um or Greek -os, -is, etc. For verbs, see § 146 below.
 

§ 137 In most instances the joining of stem and affix is a matter of simple juxtaposition.

When the stem ends in -i- and the suffix begins with the same vowel, the full derivative is spelled with only one -i-: rubie 'red' plus -ificar > rubificar 'to redden, make red.'

Note that the addition of suffixes with initial vowels to stems ending in -c- may change the sound value of that consonant. When through derivation an originally hard c (as in franc) comes to precede i or e, its pronunciation changes as a rule to soft c (as in Francia). Inversely, when an originally soft c (as in cortice 'bark') comes through derivation to precede an a or o, its pronunciation changes as a rule to hard c (as in cortical). However, a soft c remains soft c before the suffixes -ada, -ata, -age, -alia, -astro, -astra and must be spelled -ci-: nuce 'nut' plus -ada > nuciada.

Similarly hard c remains hard c before the suffixes -eria, -ero, -esc, -ese, -essa, -etta, -ette, -etto, -iera, -iero, -issime, -issimo and must be spelled -ch-: porco 'pig' plus -eria > porcheria 'pork shop.'

Note that the seeming irregularity of an example like ricchessa 'riches' < ric 'rich' is due to the fact that cc is spelled c when it appears at the end of a word.

Words ending in -age (whether this group of sounds be a suffix or not) retain the soft pronunciation of -g- (like z in 'azure') in derivatives based on them. When the suffix begins in a or o, the g is replaced by -gi-: orange plus -ada > orangiada; but orange plus -erin > orangerin 'orange greenhouse.'

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I.A Derivation ab substantivos
------------------------------

I.A.a Substantivos derivate ab substantivos

§138 Substantivos es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente substantivos que representa feminas, parallel a substantivos in -o que representa homines, vide §24 supra.

-ada 1. = producto facite de ...; p.ex. limon -> limonada;
nove formation: persica -> persicada: bibita de persica; 2. = fila/serie de ...; p.ex. columna -> columnada: fila/serie de columnas, colonnada;
nove formation: fenestra -> fenestrada: fila/serie de fenestras; Nota: Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.

-age (pronunciation: -aje) = collection de ...; p.ex. folio -> foliage;
nove formation: fructo -> fructage; Nota: Scribite -agi ante -a o -o de suffixo additional. Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.
 

-alia = collection sin valor de ...; p.ex. ferro -> ferralia: (partes de) materiales de ferro que non plus es usabile;
nove formation: papiro -> papiralia: papiro o documentos sin utilitate o non plus usabile; etiam: vetule papiros, pila de papiros de travalio, etc.

-ano 1. = nativo, citatano, o habitante de ...; p.ex. Africa -> africano;
nove formation: Atlanta -> atlantano;
2. = lingua de ...; p.ex. Italia -> italiano;
nove formation: Samoa -> samoano;
3. = adherente o discipulo de ...; p.ex. Mohammed -> mohammedano;
nove formation: Wesley -> wesleyano; discipulo de Wesley
 

Nota: Usate con nomines de locos e personas. In le caso de nomines de locos que non termina in -a o -o como etiam de omne nomines de personas, le variante euphonic -iano es preferite; p.ex. Marte -> martiano.

Le forma adjective correspondente es -an (-ian). In le sensos (1) e (3) le forma feminin es -ana (-iana). In le sensos (1) e (2) synonymo de -ese. In le sensos (1) e (3) synonymo de -ita.

-ario I. = persona concernite con o characterisate per ...; p.ex. mission -> missionario;
nove formation: ferrovia -> ferroviario;

Nota: Synonymo de -ero e -ista, le quales differe de -ario in que -ero accentua affaires professional, durante que -ista suggere le preoccupation (professional o recreational) de un persona con un systema, un scientia, un arte, etc. Formas parallel in e -ario e -ero es frequentemente possibile. Le forma adjective correspondente es -ari. Le forma feminin es -aria.

II. 1. = collection de ...; p.ex. vocabulo -> vocabulario; herba -> herbario;
&nbsp

nove formationes: proverbio -> proverbiario: collection de proverbios; insecto -> insectario;
 

2. = loco que contine ...; p.ex. grano -> granario;
nove formation: feno -> fenario: deposito de feno;

-astro 1. = persona inferior o sin valor; p.ex. poeta -> poetastro: poeta inferior;
nove formation: judice -> judiciastro: judice incompetente;

2. = apparentate per remaritage del patre o del matre; p.ex.
patre -> patrastro;

Nota: Usate con substantivos que indica esseres masculin. Le feminino correspondente es -astra.

-ata = contento de o quantitate continite in ...; p.ex. coclear -> coclearata;
nove formation: calice -> caliciata;
 

-ato = function, stato, rango, jurisdiction, periodo de officio, o territorio de ...; p.ex. duce -> ducato: territorio o position/rango de duce; novicio -> noviciato: periodo de initiation;
nove formationes: capitano -> capitanato; discipulo -> discipulato: stato de esser un discipulo;

-eria (pronunciation: -ería, con accento super -i)
1. = loco ubi ... es facite, fabricate, retenite, o vendite; p.ex.
lacte -> lacteria;
nove formation: instrumento -> instrumenteria: boteca de instrumentos;
2. = arte, mestiero, o practica de laborar con ...; etiam: le producto de tal labor; p.ex. drappo -> drapperia;
nove formation: arco -> archeria;
3. = conducta de ... o conducta como illo de ...; p.ex. diabolo -> diaboleria;
nove formation: clown -> clowneria;
Nota: In le sensos (1) e (2) le forma correspondente de agente es -ero. Coincide con -ero plus -ia. Pro derivatos ab verbos, vide §152.

-ero = uno qui labora con o commercia/negotia in ...; p.ex. barba -> barbero; banca -> banchero;
nove formation: ambulantia -> ambulantiero: chauffeur de ambulantia;
Nota: Derivatos additional in -ia coincide con formationes in -eria. Adjectivos correspondente es sovente formate in -ari. Le feminino correspondente es -era. Synonymo de -ario e -ista.
 

-ese
1. = nativo, citatano, o habitante de ...; p.ex. Geneva -> genevese;
nove formation: Salamanca -> salamanchese;
2. = lingua de ...; p.ex. Japon -> japonese;
nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynese;
Nota: Nulle forma distincte pro le feminino, sed cf. le synonymos -ano, -iano. In senso (1) etiam synonymo de -ita. Identic in forma e correspondente in signification a -ese adjectival (vide §139).
 

-essa 1. = ... feminin; p.ex. tigre -> tigressa;
nove formation: vulpe -> vulpessa; 2. = sposa de ...; p.ex. conte -> contessa;
nove formationes: mayor: burgomaestro -> mayoressa; inca -> inchessa: sposa del Inca;
Nota: Synonymo de -a que debe esser preferite quando le masculino termina in -o. Vide §24.
 

-eto = boschetto de arbores del specie ...; p.ex. pino -> pineto;
nove formation: orangiero -> orangiereto;

-etto, -etta = ... parve o minor; p.ex. hacha -> hachetta; pacco -> pacchetto;
nove formationes: boteca -> botechetta: parve boteca; uxor -> uxoretta: parve uxor; poeta -> poetetto, poetetta: parve poeta;
Nota: Le -o e -a final exprime masculin e feminin. Quando nulle sexo es involvite, -etta es usate con substantivos in -a, -etto in omne altere casos.
 

-ia
I. (pronunciation: -ia, non accentuate) = pais, provincia, o region del ...s, o nominate secundo ...; p.ex. arabe -> Arabia;
nove formationes: Tocharo -> Tocharia; Wilson -> Wilsonia;
Nota: Usate con nomines de populos e personas; pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

II. (pronunciation: -ía, con accento super -i)
1. = qualitate, stato, o jurisdiction de ...; p.ex. abbate -> abbatia;
nove formation: capitano -> capitania;
2. = arte, scientia, o practica, etiam profession, establimento, etc. de ...; p.ex. geologo -> geologia; idolatra -> idolatria;

nove formationes: radiotoxicologo -> radiotoxicologia; heliolatra: adorator del sol -> heliolatria: adoration del sol; bottinero -> bottineria: mestiero o boteca de bottinero;
Nota: Usate principalmente con parolas jam composite. Coincide con -eria quando usate con formationes in -ero. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.
 
 
 
 

-ica = scientia o studio de ...; p.ex. electron -> electronica; nove formation: phonema -> phonemica;
Nota: Usate principalmente in formationes parallel a adjectivos in -ic (vide §139) e substantivos in -ico.

-ico = uno qui es experte in le arte o scientia de ...; p.ex. historia -> historico;
nove formation: theoria -> theorico;
Nota: Usate principalmente in formationes parallel a adjectivos in -ic (vide §139).
 

-iera
1. = que contine, coperi, o protege ...; p.ex. sucro -> sucriera: scutella/bassinetto a sucro;
nove formation: bira -> biriera: latta de bira;
2. = campo, mina, petreria, etc. ubi ... cresce o es discoperite; p.ex. ris -> risiera: campo de ris;
nove formation: baca -> bachiera: parve terreno de bacas;

-iero = arbore, arbusto, planta, etc. portante o producente ...s; p.ex. amandola -> amandoliero: arbore de amandolas;
nove formation: corco -> corchiero: arbore de corco;
Nota: Le nomines de fructos in -a sovente ha parallel nomines de arbores in -o; p.ex. persica-persico; pira-piro. In tal casos, le formation in -iero es synonyme con illo in -o.

-il = loco ubi ... es retenite; p.ex. can -> canil;
nove formation: tauro -> tauril: clausura de/pro tauros;
Nota: Usate con nomines de animales.

-ina = substantia facite de..., characterisante, habente/con relation a, etc. ...; p.ex. caseo -> caseina;
nove formation: globulo -> globulina;
Nota: Usate principalmente como suffixo technic (chimic).
 

-ismo 1. = stato o practica de esser un ...; p.ex. despota -> despotismo;
nove formation: gigante -> gigantismo;
 

2. = [Medicina] condition anormal resultante de excesso de ...; p.ex. plumbo -> plumbismo: intoxication de plumbo;
nove formation: caffeina -> caffeinismo;

3. = doctrina o practica de, o concernite con ...; p.ex. Calvin -> calvinismo;
nove formation: Tito -> titoismo;

4. = alique characteristic de ..., o del lingua de ...; p.ex. hellen -> hellenismo;
nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynismo;
Nota: Frequentemente parallel a substantivos in -ista e a verbos in -isar e subjecte a interpretation como derivato de -isar con le signification: action, processo, practica, etc. de ...isar. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.

-ista
1. = uno qui practica le arte o scientia de ...; p.ex. biologia -> biologista; tympano -> tympanista: percussionista;
nove formationes: radiographia: photographia de radio-x -> radiographista: photographo de radio-x; saxophono -> saxophonista;
2. = adherente del doctrina de ...; p.ex. Calvin -> calvinista; evolution -> evolutionista;
nove formation: Cesare -> cesarista; collaboration -> collaborationista;
Nota: Frequentemente parallel a substantivos in -ismo e verbos in -isar e subjecte a interpretation como derivato de -isar con le signification: uno qui ...isa o crede in ...isar. In senso (1) synonymo de -ario e -ero. Pro derivatos ab adjectivos, vide §141.
 
 

-ita
1. = habitante, citatano, o nativo de ...; p.ex. Neapole -> neapolita;
nove formation: Brooklyn -> brooklynita;
2. = membro, adherente, o partisano de ...; p.ex. Jacobo -> jacobita;
nove formation: Truman -> trumanita;
Nota: Nulle distinction in forma de masculin e feminin, sed cf. le synonymos -ano, -iano. In senso (1) etiam synonymo de -ese.

-ite = rocca o altere mineral que contine ..., resimila ..., es characterisate per ..., ha relation a ...; p.ex. ligno -> lignite; meteoro -> meteorite;
nove formation: Wyoming -> wyomingite;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic (mineralogic).

-itis = maladia inflammatori de ...; p.ex. appendice -> appendicitis;
nove formation: esophago -> esophagitis;
Nota: Usate con nomines de partes del corpore, principalmente in terminos technic (medic).
 

-oide = alique como, o formate como ...; p.ex. anthropo- -> anthropoide; globo -> globoide;
nove formationes: entomo- -> entomoide; disco -> discoide;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic. Frequentemente a considerar como forma substantivate de adjectivos in -oide.
 

-osis = anormal o morbose condition, stato, o processo de...; causate per...; characterisate per...; p.ex. neuro- -> neurosis; tuberculo -> tuberculosis;
nove formation: halito -> halitosis;
Nota: Usate principalmente in parolas technic (medic). Le adjectivos correspondente es formate in -otic.

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Derivation from nouns
---------------------
 
 

§ 138. I.A.a. -- Nouns are derived FROM NOUNS by means of the suffixes listed below. On the formation of nouns representing females parallel to nouns in -o representing males, see § 24 above.

-ada 1. 'product made from ...' e.g. limon 'lemon' > limonada 'lemonade';
new formation: persica 'peach' > persicada 'peachade (peach drink)'; 2. 'series of ...' e.g. columna 'column' > columnada 'colonnade';
new formation: fenestra 'window' > fenestrada 'row of windows'
Note: For derivatives from verbs, see § 152.

-age (pron. -aje) 'collection of ...' e.g. folio 'leaf' > foliage;
new formation: fructo 'fruit' > fructage 'fruitage'
Note: Spelled -agi- before -a- or -o- of additional suffix. For derivatives from verbs, see § 152.

-alia 'worthless collection of ...' e.g. ferro 'iron' > ferralia 'scrap iron';
new formation: papiro 'paper' > papiralia 'waste paper'; also: 'old papers, heaps of working papers, etc.'
 
 

-ano 1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g. Africa > africano 'African';
new formation: Atlanta > aflantano 'Ariantan';
2. 'language of ...' e.g. Italia 'Italy' > italiano 'Italian';
new formation: Samoa > samoano 'Samoan';
3. 'adherent or follower of ...' e.g. Mohammed > mohammedano 'Mohammedan';
new formation: Wesley > wesleyano 'Wesleyan'

Note: Used with names of places and persons. In the case of place names not ending in -a or -o as also of all names of persons, the euphonic variant -iano is to be preferred, e.g. Marte 'Mars' > martiano 'Martian.'

The corresponding adjective form is -an (-ian). In senses (1) and (3) the corresponding feminine is -ana (-iana). In senses (1) and (2) synonym of -ese. In senses (1) and (3) synonym of -ita.

-ario I. 'person concerned with or characterized by ...' e.g. mission > missionario 'missionary';
new formation: ferrovia 'railroad' > ferroviario 'railwayman'

Note: Synonym of -ero and -ista which differ from it in that -ero stresses professional concern while -ista suggests a person's preoccupation (professional or avocational) with a system, a science, an art, etc. Parallel forms in both -ario and -ero are often possible. The corresponding adjective form is -ari. The corresponding feminine is -aria.
 

II. 1. 'collection of ...' e.g.
vocabulo 'word' > vocabulario 'vocabulary'; herba 'herb' > herbario 'herbarium';

new formations: proverbio 'proverb' > proverbiario 'collection of proverbs'; insecto 'insect' > insectario 'insectarium';

2. 'place containing ...' e.g. grano 'grain' > granario 'granary';
new formation: feno 'hay'> fenario 'hayloft, haymow'

-astro 1. 'inferior or worthless ...' e.g. poeta 'poet' > poetastro 'poetaster';
new formation: judice 'judge' > judiciastro 'blundering judge';
 

2. 'related through remarriage of a parent' e.g. patre 'father' > patrastro 'stepfather'
 

Note: Used with nouns indicating male beings. The corresponding feminine is -astra.

-ata 'contents of or quantity contained in one ...' e.g. coclear 'spoon' > coclearata 'spoonful';
new formation: calice 'chalice' > caliciata 'chaliceful'

-ato 'function, status, rank, jurisdiction, period of office, or territory of a ...' e.g. duce 'duke' > ducato 'duchy, dukedom'; novicio 'novice' > noviciato 'novitiate';
new formations: capitano 'captain' > capitanato 'captaincy'; discipulo 'disciple' discipulato 'discipleship'

-eria (pron. -er`ia)
1. 'place where ... is made, worked, kept, or sold' e.g. lacte 'milk' lacteria 'dairy';
new formation: instrumento 'tool' > instrumenteria 'tool shop';
2. 'art, craft, trade, or practice of working with...; also: the product of such work' e.g. drappo 'cloth' > drapperia 'drapery';
new formation: arco 'bow' > archeria 'archery';
3. 'behavior of a... or like that of a ...' e.g. diabolo 'devil' > diaboleria 'deviltry';
new formation: clown > clowneria 'clownery'
Note: In senses (1) and (2) the corresponding agent form is -ero. Coincides with -ero plus -ia. For derivatives from verbs see § 152.
 

-ero 'one who works with or deals in ...' e.g. barba 'beard' ) barbero 'barber'; banca 'bank' > banchero 'banker';
new formation: ambulantia 'ambulance' > ambulantiero 'ambulance driver'
Note: Further derivatives in -ia coincide with formations in -eria. Corresponding adjectives are often formed in -ari. The corresponding feminine is -era. Synonym of -ario and -ista.
 
 
 

-ese
1. 'native, citizen, or inhabitant of ...' e.g. Geneva > genevese 'Genevese';
new formation: Salamanca > salamanchese 'Salamanquese';
2. 'language of ...' e.g. Japon 'Japan' > japonese 'Japanese';
new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynese 'Brooklynese'
Note: No distinct form for the feminine, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ita. Identical in form and corresponding in meaning to adjectival -ese (see § 139).

-essa 1. 'female ...' e.g. tigre 'tiger' > tigressa 'tigress';
new formation: vulpe 'fox' > vulpessa 'vixen'; 2. 'wife of a ...' e.g. conte 'count' > contessa 'countess';
new formations: mayor > mayoressa 'mayoress'; inca 'Inca' > inchessa 'wife of the Inca'
Note: Synonym of -a which is to be preferred when the male ends in -o. See § 24.

-eto 'grove of... trees' e.g. pino 'pine' > pineto 'pine grove';
new formation: orangiero 'orange tree' > orangiereto 'orange grove'

-etto, -etta 'little, small, or minor ...' e.g. hacha 'ax' > hachetta 'hatchet'; pacco 'pack, bundle' > pacchetto 'package, packet';
new formations: boteca 'shop, store' > botechetta 'little shop'; uxor 'wife' > uxoretta 'little wife, wifie'; poeta 'poet' > poetetto, poetetta 'little poet, little poetess'
Note: The endings -o and -a express male and female. When no sex is involved, -etta is used with nouns in -a, -etto in all other cases.

-ia
(pron '-ia) 'country, province or region of the...s, or named for ...' e.g. arabe 'Arab' > Arabia;
new formations: Tocharo 'Tocharian' > Tocharia; Wilson > Wilsonia
Note: used with names of peoples and persons; for derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ia (pron. -'ia)
1. 'state, quality, status or jurisdiction of (a, an) ...' e.g. abbate 'abbot' > abbatia 'abbacy, abbotcy';
new formation: capitano 'captain' > capitania 'captaincy, captainship';

2. 'art, science, or practice, also profession, establishment, etc. of (a, an) ...' e.g. geologo 'geologist' > geologia 'geology'; idolatra 'idolater' > idolatria 'idolatry';
new formations: radiotoxicologo 'radiotoxicologist' > radiotoxicologia 'radiotoxicology'; heliolatra 'sun worshiper, hellolater' > heliolatria 'sun worship, heliolatry'; bottinero 'shoemaker' > bottineria 'shoemaker's trade or shop'
Note: Used mostly with compounds. Coincides with -eria when used with formations in -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ica 'science or study of the ...' e.g. electron > electronica 'electronics';
new formation: phonema 'phoneme' > phonemica 'phonemics'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see § 139) and nouns in -ico.
 

-ico 'one skilled in the art or science of ...' e.g. historia 'history' > historico 'historian';
new formation: theoria 'theory' > theorico 'theoretician'
Note: Used principally in formations parallel to adjectives in -ic (see § 139).

-iera 1. 'that which contains, covers, or protects ...' e.g. sucro 'sugar' > sucriera 'sugar bowl';
new formation: bira 'beer' > biriera 'beer can, growler';
2. 'field, mine, quarry, etc. where... grows or is found' e.g. ris 'rice' > risiera 'rice field';
new formation: baca 'berry' > bachiera 'berry patch'

-iero 'tree, bush, plant, etc. bearing or producing ...s' e.g. amandola 'almond' > amandoliero 'almond tree';
new formation: corco 'cork' > corchiero 'cork tree'
Note: Fruit names in -a have often parallel tree names in -o (e.g. persica-persico; pira-piro). In such cases the formation in -iero is synonymous with that in -o.

-il 'place where ...s are kept' e.g. can 'dog' > canil 'kennel';
new formation: tauro 'bull' > tauril 'bull pen'
Note: Used with names of animals.

-ina 'substance made from, characterizing, related to, etc., ...' e.g. caseo 'cheese' > caseina 'casein';
new formation: globulo 'globule' > globulina 'globulin'
Note. Used chiefly as technical (chemical) suffix.

-ismo 1. 'state or practice of being a ...' e.g. despota 'despot' > despotismo 'despotism';
new formation: gigante 'giant' > gigantismo 'giantism';

2. [Med.] abnormal condition resulting from excess of ...' e.g. plumbo 'lead' > plumbismo 'plumbism, lead poisoning';
new formation: caffeina 'caffein' > caffeinismo 'caffeinism';

3. 'doctrine or practice of, or concerned with ...' e.g. Calvin > calvinismo 'Calvinism';
new formation: Tito > titoismo 'Titoism';

4. 'something characteristic of..., or of the language of ...' e.g. hellen 'Hellene' > hellenismo 'Hellenism';
new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynismo 'Brooklynism'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ista and to verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'action, process, practice, etc. of...izing.' For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ista 1. 'one who practices the art or science of ...' e.g. biologia 'biology' > biologista biologist; tympano 'drum' > tympanista 'drummer, tympanist';
new formations: radiographia 'radiography, x-ray photography' > radiographista 'x-ray photographer'; saxophono 'saxophone' > saxophonista 'saxophonist';
2. adherent of the doctrine of...' e.g. Calvin > calvinista 'Calvinist'; evolution > evolutionista 'evolutionist';
new formation: Cesare 'Caesar' > cesarista 'Caesarist'; collaboration > collaborationista 'collaborationist'
Note: Often parallel to nouns in -ismo and verbs in -isar and subject to interpretation as derivative from -isar with the meaning 'one who ...izes or believes in -izing.' In sense (1) synonym of -ario and -ero. For derivatives from adjectives, see § 141.

-ita 1. 'inhabitant, citizen or native of ...' e.g. Neapole 'Naples' > neapolita 'Neapolitan';
new formation: Brooklyn > brooklynita 'Brooklynite';
2. member, adherent, or partisan of ...' e.g. Jacobo 'James' > jacobita 'jacobite';
new formation: Truman > trumanita 'Trumanite'
Note: No distinction in form of male and female, but cf. the synonyms -ano, -iano. In sense (1) also synonym of -ese.

-ite 'rock or other mineral containing..., resembling ..., characterized by .., related to ...' e.g. ligno 'wood' > lignite 'lignite'; meteoro 'meteor' > meteorite 'meteorite';
new formation: Wyoming > wyomingite 'Wyomingite'
Note: Used chiefly in technical (mineralogical) terms.

-itis 'inflammatory disease of the ...' e.g. appendice 'appendix' > appendicitis 'appendicitis';
new formation: esophago 'esophagus' > esophagitis
Note: Used with names of parts of the body, chiefly in technical (medical) terms.

-oide 'something like, or shaped like ...' e.g. anthropo- 'man' > anthropoide 'anthropoid'; globo 'globe' > globoide 'globoid';
new formations: entomo- 'insect' > entomoide 'entomoid'; disco 'disk' > discoide 'discoid'
Note: Used chiefly in technical terms. Often to be taken as substantivized form of adjectives in -oide.

-osis 'abnormal or diseased condition, state, or process of the..., caused by ..., characterized by . .., etc.' e.g. neuro- 'nerve' > neurosis; tuberculo 'tubercle' tuberculosis;
new formation: halito 'breath' > halitosis
Note: Used chiefly in technical (medical) words. The corresponding adjectives are formed in -otic.

-----------------------------------------
I.A.b Adjectivos derivate ab substantivos
-----------------------------------------

§139 ADJECTIVOS es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente le uso de substantivos in apposition con functiones quasi-adjectival, vide §30 supra.

-al = pertinente a ..., characteristic de ..., etc.; p.ex. natura -> natural;
nove formation: veneno -> venenal: de veneno;
Nota: Suffixo adjectival le plus general e non specific. Le variante -ar es preferite con substantivos que contine -l; p.ex. bussola -> bussolar: (del) bussola. Le typo interrogatorial pote esser interpretate como un derivato de interrogatorio o (con le variante suffixal -ial) de interrogator. In patronos de iste sorta le variante -ial es preferite.
 
 

-an = pertinente a ...; specialmente, native de ...; p.ex. urbe -> urban; Mohammed -> mohammedan; Africa -> african;
nove formationes: Tolstoi -> tolstoian; Asia -> asian;
Nota: Usate con nomines de locos e personas. In le caso de nomines de locos que non termina in -a o -o como etiam de omne nomines de personas, le variante euphonic -ian es preferite; p.ex. Zamenhof -> zamenhofian; sed etiam Canada -> canadian. Le forma substantive correspondente es -ano (-iano).
 

-ari = pertinente a ..., consistente de ..., etc.; p.ex. legenda -> legendari; fragmento -> fragmentari;
nove formation: vestimento -> vestimentari;
Nota: Functiona como adjectivo correspondente a substantivos in -ario, -ero, e -iero. Le variantes -er e -ier pote esser usate pro corresponder a substantivos in -ero e -iero, respectivemente.

-ate = habente un ... o ...s; p.ex. barba -> barbate; vertebra -> vertebrate;
nove formation: anello -> anellate;
Nota: Coincide con le participio passate, in uso adjectival, de verbos in -ar, p.ex. anellar -> anellate.

-esc 1. = como, similar a, o characteristic de ...; p.ex. gigante -> gigantesc;
nove formation: elephante -> elephantesc: como un elephante;
2. = in le maniera o stilo de ...; p.ex. arabe -> arabesc;
nove formation: Chopin -> chopinesc;
 
 

-ese = pertinente a ...; specialmente, native de ..., (proveniente) de ...; p.ex. China -> chinese;
nove formation: Ural -> uralese;
Nota: Usate con nomines de locos. Pro substantivos in -ese, vide §138 supra.

-ic = de, pertinente a ..., characterisate per ...; p.ex. cubo -> cubic; nostalgia -> nostalgic;
nove formation: Bosporo -> bosporic: del Bosporo;

-ifere = portante, producente, rendente; p.ex. cono -> conifere; carbon -> carbonifere;
nove formation: fungo -> fungifere: portante fungo;
 

-ific = facente, causante ...; p.ex. pace -> pacific;
nove formation: lumine -> luminific: producente lumine;

-in = de, pertinente a, etc. ...; p.ex. alcali [Chimia] -> alcalin; can -> canin;
nove formation: mure -> murin: de mure;
Nota: Usate particularmente con nomines de animales. Le formas substantivate -ino, -ina pote esser usate pro designar prole animal.
 

-ista = pertinente a ...ismo o ...istas; p.ex. evolution -> evolutionista: de evolution;
nove formation: inflation -> inflationista;
Nota: Non distincte de substantivos in -ista usate in apposition.
 

-oide = como ..., o formate como ...; p.ex. negro -> negroide;
nove formation: disco -> discoide;
Nota: Usate principalmente in terminos technic. Pote esser substantivate sin cambiar le forma.

-ose = habente, abundante in ...; characterisate per ...; p.ex. joco -> jocose; religion -> religiose;
nove formation: incendio -> incendiose: abundante in focos destructive;
Nota: -ion plus -ose -> -iose.

-otic = pertinente a ...osis; p.ex. neurosis -> neurotic;
nove formation: thrombosis -> thrombotic;
Nota: Usate in terminos technic (medic) correspondente a (e derivate del base de) substantivos in -osis.

-----------------------------
Adjectives derived from nouns
-----------------------------

§ 139. I.A.b.- ADJECTIVES are derived FROM NOUNS by means of the suffixes listed below. On the use of nouns in apposition with quasi-adjectival functions, see § 30 above.

-al 'pertaining to ..., characteristic of ..., etc.' e.g. natura 'nature' > natural;
new formation: veneno 'poison' > venenal 'poison, of poison'
Note: The most general and unspecific adjectival suffix. The variant -ar is to be preferred with nouns containing l; e.g. bussola 'compass' > bussolar '(of the) compass.' The type interrogatorial may be construed as a derivative from interrogatorio 'interrogatory' or (with the suffix variant -ial) from interrogator. In patterns of this sort the variant -ial is to be preferred.

-an 'pertaining to ...'; esp. 'native of ...' e.g. urbe 'town' > urban; Mohammed > mohammedan 'Mohammedan'; Africa > african 'African';
new formations: Tolstoi > tolstoian 'Tolstoyan'; Asia > asian 'Asian'
Note: Used with names of places and persons. In the case of place names not ending in -a or -o as also of all names of persons, the euphonic variant -ian is to be preferred; e.g. Zamenhof > zamenhofian 'Zamenhofian'; but also Canada > canadian. The corresponding noun form is -ano (-iano).

-ari 'pertaining to ... , consisting of ... , etc.' e.g. legenda 'legend' > legendari, 'legendary'; fragmento 'fragment' > fragmentari 'fragmentary';
new formation: vestimento 'garment' > vestimentari 'garment'
Note: Functions as adjective corresponding to nouns in -ario, -ero and -iero. The variants -er and -ier may be used to correspond to nouns in -ero and -iero respectively.

-ate 'having a... or ...s' e.g. barba 'beard' > barbate 'bearded'; vertebra > vertebrate;
new formation: anello 'ring' > anellate 'ringed'
Note: Coincides with past participle, in adjectival use, of verbs in -ar; e.g. anellar 'to ring' > andlate 'ringed.'

-esc 1. 'like, similar to, or characteristic of a ...' e.g. gigante 'giant' > gigantesc 'gigantic';
new formation: elephante 'elephant' > elephantesc 'elephantlike';
2. 'in the manner or style of ...' e.g. arabe 'Arab' > arabesc 'arabesque';
new formation: Chopin > chopinesc 'Chopinesque'

-ese 'pertaining to ...'; esp. 'native to..., of ...'; e.g. China > chinese 'Chinese';
new formation: Ural 'Urals' > uralese 'Uralian'
Note: Used with names of places. For nouns in -ese, see § 138 above.

-ic 'of, pertaining to ..., characterized by ...' e.g. cubo 'cube' > cubic; nostalgia > nostalgic;
new formation: Bosporo 'Bosporus' > bosporic 'of the Bosporus'

-ifere 'bearing, producing, yielding' e.g. cono 'cone' > conifere 'coniferous'; carbon 'coal' carbonifere 'carboniferous';
new formation: fungo 'fungus' > fungifere 'fungusbearing'

-ific 'making, causing ...' e.g. pace 'peace' > pacific;
new formation: lumine 'light' > luminific 'light-producing'

-in 'of, pertaining to, etc., ...' e.g. alcali [Chem.] > alcalin 'alcaline'; can 'dog' > canin 'canine';
new formation: mure 'mouse' > murin 'of mice, mouse'
Note: Used particularly with names of animals. The substantivized forms -ino, -ina may be used to designate animal offspring.

-ista 'pertaining to ...ism or ...ists' e.g. evolution > evolutionista 'of evolution, evolutionist';
new formation: inflation > inflationista 'inflationary, inflationist'
Note: Not distinct from nouns in -ista used in apposition.

-oide 'like..., shaped like ...' e.g. negro 'Negro' > negroide 'negroid';
new formation: disco 'disk' > discoide 'discoid, discoidal'
Note: Used chiefly in technical terms. To be substantivized without change in form.

-ose 'having, abounding in . .., characterized by ...' e.g. joco 'joke' > jocose; religion > religiose 'religious';
new formation: incendio 'destructive fire' > incendiose 'abounding in destructive fires'
Note: -ion plus -ose > -iose.

-otic 'pertaining to ...osis' e.g. neurosis and neurotic;
new formation: thrombosis and thrombotic
Note: Used in technical (medical) terms corresponding to (and derived from the base of) nouns in -osis.

-------------------------------------
I.A.c Verbos derivate ab substantivos
-------------------------------------

§140 VERBOS es derivate AB SUBSTANTIVOS E ADJECTIVOS per medio del desinentia verbal simple -ar o su formas composite -ificar e -isar (-ficar e -sar post -i). Le distinction de signification in verbos derivate de iste tres typos es plus difficile a definir que sentir.
 

Pro nove formationes, le punctos sequente es a tener in mente: Le desinentia -ar pote esser dicite haber nulle significantia in se; illo mermente indica le natura verbal del derivato. Le signification specific associate con le natura verbal pote esser clarificate per altere factores. Pro illustrar: que guantar (de guanto) probabilemente non suggere le idea de 'render como guanto' (per le modello de acierar [render como aciero] de 'aciero'), o 'batter con un guanto' (per le modello de martellar [batter con un martello] de martello) non es a causa de alicun signification de -ar, sed es simplemente un question de senso commun. Nove formationes in -ar obtene lor signification specific per contexto, senso commun, e sovente etiam per le uso simultanee de un prefixo, como per exemplo in afratrar (de fratre), ubi a- suggere approximation assi que le verbo significara 'facer un fratre o fratres de', o in invinagrar (de vinagre), ubi le prefixo suggere immersion assi que le verbo significara 'adder vinagre'.
 

Le signification suggerite per formationes verbal in -ificar es illo de cambiar un cosa in alique que illo non esseva antea. In un de su aspectos, le suffixo -isar suggere similemente le idea de facer, sed plus tosto in le senso que un cosa es facite assumer un nove stato sin perder su identitate previe. Assi petrificar suggere un action que cambia in petra alique que esseva alique altere, durante que vaporisar suggere que un substantia le qual non cambia su identitate es transformate in vapor. In nove formationes, le distinction deberea esser clarmente observate. Per exemplo, papirificar [converter in papiro] (de papiro) poterea haber 'ligno' como su objecto, durante que papirisar [facer in papiro] possibilemente refererea al 'cortice' de un arbore que remane lo que illo esseva, sed comencia haber le apparentia de papiro.

-ar
1. = facer uso de ...; applicar, dar, etc. ... (a); p.ex. vulnere -> vulnerar;
nove formation: anello -> anellar: applicar o dar un anello a; garage -> garagiar: mantener o poner in un garage;
2. = render ..., facer ..., etc.; p.ex. sic -> siccar: facer sic;
nove formation: folle -> follar: facer alicuno/alique folle;
Nota: Concernente verbos composite formate con prefixos e -ar, vide supra e §§155, 163.
 
 

-ificar = facer, render ...; converter in ...; p.ex. ample -> amplificar; petra -> petrificar;
nove formationes: grasse -> grassificar; glacie -> glacificar: converter in glacie;
Nota: Quando applicate a substantivos, -ificar pote esser interpretate como suffixo adjectival -ific plus -ar; p.ex. pace + -ificar -> pacificar, o pacific + -ar -> pacificar
 
 

-isar
1. = cambiar in ...; p.ex. pulvere -> pulverisar;
nove formation: emulsion -> emulsionisar;
2. = applicar ...; facer uso (del principios) de ..., etc.; p.ex. Pasteur -> pasteurisar;
nove formation: collodio -> collodisar;
3. = render ..., facer ...; p.ex. american -> americanisar;
nove formation: minime -> minimisar;
Nota: Substantivos in -ismo e -ista pote sovente esser interpretate como derivate ab verbos in -isar, e non ab substantivos o adjectivos basic.

---------------------------------------
Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives
---------------------------------------

§ 140. I.A.c., I.B.d.
-- VERBS are derived FROM NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES by means of the simple verb ending -at or its compounded forms -ificar and -isar (-ficar and -sar after -i-). The distinction of meaning in derived verbs of these three types is harder to define than to sense.

For new formations the following points are to be borne in mind: The ending -ar may be said to have no meaning of its own; it merely indicates the verbal nature of the derivative. The specific meaning to be associated with that verbal nature is to be clarified by other factors. To illustrate: that guantar (from guanto 'glove') is not likely to suggest the ideas 'to render glovelike' (after the model of acierar 'to render steel-like' from aciero 'steel') or 'to slap with a glove' (after the model of martellar 'to beat with a hammer' from martello 'hammer') is not due to any signification of -ar but is simply a matter of common sense. New formations in -ar obtain their specific meaning through context, common sense, and often also through the simultaneous use of a prefix, as for instance in afratrar (from fratre 'brother'), where a- suggests approximation so that the verb will mean 'to make a brother or brothers of,' or in invinagrar (from vinagre 'vinegar'), where the prefix suggests immersion so that the verb will mean 'to put in vinegar.'

The meaning suggested by verb formations in -ificar is that of making a thing over into something it was not before. In one of its aspects the suffix -isar suggests likewise the idea of making but rather in the sense that a thing is made to assume a new state without losing its former identity. Thus petrificar 'to petrify' suggests an action which makes something into a stone that was something else while vaporisar 'to vaporize' suggests that a substance which does not change its identity is made into vapor. In new formations the distinction should be clearly observed. For instance, papirificar 'to make into paper' (from papiro 'paper') might have 'wood' as its object while papirisar 'to make into paper' would apply possibly to the bark of a tree which remains what it was but begins to have the appearance of paper.

-ar
1. 'to make use of...; to apply, give, etc ... (to)' e.g. vulnere 'wound' > vulnerar 'to wound';
new formation: anello 'ring' > anellar 'to ring, apply or give a ring to'; garage > garagiar 'to keep or put in a garage, to garage';
2. 'to render ..., to make..., etc.' e.g. sic 'dry' > siccar 'to dry, make dry';
new formation: folle 'mad' > follar 'to madden, drive mad'
Note: On compound verbs formed with prefixes and -ar see above and §§ 155, 163.

-ificar 'to make, render...; to convert into ...' e.g. ample > amplificar 'to amplify'; petra 'stone' > petrificar 'to petrify';
new formations: grasse 'fat' > grassificar 'to fatten'; glacie 'ice' > glacificar 'to ice, convert into ice'
Note: When applied to nouns, -ificar can be construed as adjectival suffix -ific plus -ar; e.g. pace 'peace' plus -ificar or pacific plus -ar > pacificar 'to pacify.'

-isar
1. 'to make into ...' e.g. pulvere 'powder' > pulverisar 'to pulverize';
new formation: emulsion > emulsionisar 'to emulsionize';
2. 'to apply...; to make use (of the principles) of .... etc.' e.g. Pasteur > pasteurisar 'to pasteurize';
new formation: collodio 'collodion' > collodisar 'to collodionize';
3. 'to render ..., to make ...' e.g. american > americanisar 'to Americanize';
new formation: minime 'smallest' > minimisar 'to minimize'
Note: Nouns in -ismo and -ista may often be construed as derived from verbs in -isar rather than from basic nouns or adjectives.

----------------------------
I.B Derivation ab adjectivos
----------------------------

-----------------------------------------
I.B.a Substantivos derivate ab adjectivos
-----------------------------------------

§141 SUBSTANTIVOS es derivate AB ADJECTIVOS per medio del suffixos listate infra. Concernente adjectivos usate como pronomines o substantivos, vide §§40-41 supra.

-essa = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. polite -> politessa; ric -> ricchessa;
nove formation: apte -> aptessa;

-ia
1. (pronunciation: -ia, non accentuate) = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. efficace -> efficacia;
nove formation: felice -> felicia; fraudulente -> fraudulentia;
Nota: Usate principalmente con adjectivos in -nte. Le combination -ntia coincide con le suffixo postverbal substantive -ntia. Vide §148 sub -antia.
2. (pronunciation: -ía, con accento super -i) = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. zelose -> zelosia;
nove formation: brachycephale -> brachycephalia;
Nota: Usate principalmente con compositos technic.

-ismo
1. = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. provincial -> provincialismo;
nove formation: brutal -> brutalismo;
2. = doctrina o practica concernite con lo que es ...; p.ex. social -> socialismo;
nove formation: atonal [Musica] -> atonalismo [Musica];
3. = alique characteristic del gente ... o de lor lingua; p.ex. german -> germanismo;
nove formation: polynesian -> polynesianismo;
Nota: Pro derivatos ab substantivos, vide §138.
 
 

-ista = adherente del doctrina o practica concernite con lo que es ...; p.ex. social -> socialista;
nove formation: atonal [Musica] -> atonalista [Musica]: adherente de atonalismo;
Nota: Pro derivatos ab substantivos, vide §138.
 

-itate = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. regular -> regularitate;
nove formation: cohesive -> cohesivitate;
Nota: Synonymo de -itude, sed es preferite quando le base es jam un derivato. In derivation additional (non recommendate pro uso active), -itate appare como -it- ante le suffixos comenciante con a; p.ex. autoritate + -ari -> autoritari.
 

-itude = stato o qualitate de esser ...; p.ex. certe -> certitude;
nove formation: emerite -> emeritude: stato emerite;
Nota: Synonymo de -itate. Extendite a -itudin- in derivation additional; p.ex. latitude -> latitudinal.

---------------------------------------
I.B.b Adjectivos derivate ab adjectivos
---------------------------------------

§142 Le derivation active de ADJECTIVOS AB ADJECTIVOS es limitate al uso de un suffixo diminutive e le formation de superlativos absolute in -issime tractate in §36 supra. Nota que omne substantivo in -ista pote functionar como un adjectivo. P.ex. socialista (subst): socialista (adj) = socialistic.

-ette = aliquanto, un pauco ..., bastante, satis ...; p.ex. belle -> bellette;
nove formation: blanc -> blanchette;

--------------------------------------
I.B.c Adverbios derivate ab adjectivos
--------------------------------------

§143 Concernente le formation de ADVERBIOS DERIVATE ab adjectivos, vide §§45-47 supra.

-----------------------------------
I.B.d Verbos derivate ab adjectivos
-----------------------------------

§144 Le derivation de VERBOS AB ADJECTIVOS es completemente parallel a illo de verbos ab substantivos. Vide §140 supra.

--------------------------
Derivation from adjectives
--------------------------

-----------------------------
Nouns derived from adjectives
-----------------------------

§ 141. I.B.a.- NOUNS are derived FROM ADJECTIVES by means of the suffixes listed below. On adjectives used as pronouns or nouns, see §§ 40-41 above.

-essa 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. polite > politessa 'politeness'; ric 'rich' > ricchessa 'wealth';
new formation: apte 'apt' > aptessa 'aptitude'

-ia (pron -'ia) 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. efficace 'effective' > efficacia 'effectiveness';
new formation: felice 'happy' > felicia 'happiness'; fraudulente 'fraudulent' > fraudulentia 'fraudulence'
Note: Used chiefly with adjectives in -nte. The combination -ntia coincides with the postverbal noun suffix -ntia. See § 148 under -antia.

-ia (pron -ía) 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. zelose 'jealous' > zelosia 'jealousy';
new formation: brachycephale 'brachycephalic' > brachycephalia 'braehycephalism'
Note: Used chiefly with technical compounds.

-ismo
1. 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. provincial > provincialismo 'provincialism';
new formation: brutal > brutalismo 'brutality';
2. 'doctrine or practice concerned with what is ...' e.g. social > socialismo 'socialism';
new formation: atonal [Mus.] atonalismo [Mus.] 'atonalism';
3. 'something characteristic of the... people or of their language' e.g. german 'German' > germanismo 'Germanism';
new formation: polynesian 'Polynesian' > polynesianismo 'Polynesianism'
Note: For derivatives from nouns, see § 138.

-ista 'adherent of the doctrine or practice concerned with what is ...' e.g. social > socialista 'socialist';
new formation: atonal [Mus.] > atonalista [Mus.] 'adherent of atonalism'
Note: For derivatives from nouns, see § 138.

-itate 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. regular > regularitate 'regularity';
new formation: cohesive > cohesivitate 'cohesiveness'
Note: Synonym of -itude, but preferred when the base is already a derivative. In further derivation (not recommended for active use), -itate appears as -it- before suffixes beginning with a; e.g. autoritate 'authority' plus -ari > autoritari 'authoritarian.'

-itude 'state or quality of being ...' e.g. certe 'certain' > certitude 'certainty';
new formation: emerite 'emeritus' > emeritude 'emeritus status'
Note: Synonym of -itate. Extended to -itudin- in further derivation; e.g. latitude latitudinal.
 
 
 
 

§ 142. I.B.b.- The active derivation of ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES is limited to the use of one diminutive suffix and the formation of absolute superlatives in -issime treated in § 36 above. Note that every noun in -ista can function as an adjective. E.g. socialista 'socialist, socialistic.'

-ette 'somewhat..., pretty ...' e.g. belle 'beautiful' > bellette 'pretty';
new formation: blanc 'white' > blanchette 'whitish'
 
 
 
 

§ 143. I.B.c. -- On the formation of DERIVED ADVERBS see §§ 45-47 above.
 
 
 
 

§ 144. I.B.d.- The derivation of VERBS FROM ADJECTIVES runs completely parallel to that of verbs from nouns. See § 140 above.

------------------------
I.C Derivation ab verbos
------------------------

§145 Le suffixos usate in DERIVAR NOVE VOCABULOS AB VERBOS es generalmente connectite al thema verbal per medio de elementos transitional le quales non es le mesme pro omne verbos ni pro omne suffixos.

Il es costumari citar le elementos transitional como parte del suffixos postverbal con le resultato que illos practicamente omnes appare sub plure formas variante (como -ation, -ition, -ion, etc.) Exceptiones es le suffixos constante -ada, -age, e -eria. Con omne formas variabile reducite a lor portion non-variabile, le suffixos postverbal es: -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio, -e.

-----------
Prime thema
-----------

§146 Il pote esser dicite que omne verbo ha duo formas distincte sub le quales illo pote entrar in un derivato de suffixo postverbal. Le prime de iste formas o themas combinatori es sempre le infinitivo minus le desinentias infinitive -ar, -er, o -ir. Le suffixos que se combina con iste thema es -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile. Le ultime quatro de istes require un "elemento transitional." In le caso de verbos in -ar, illo es sempre -a; in le caso de verbos in -er, illo es -i pro -mento e -bile, e -e pro -nte e -ntia; in le caso de verbos in -ir, illo es -i pro -mento e -bile, e -ie pro -nte e -ntia. Pro illustrationes, vide §152.

§147 Assi le formas complete del suffixos postverbal que se combina con le infinitivo minus le desinentia infinitive (prime thema) es:

---------------------
Derivation from verbs
---------------------

§ 145. I.C.- The suffixes used in DERIVING NEW WORDS FROM VERBS are generally linked to the verbal stem by means of transition features which are not the same for all verbs nor for all suffixes.

It is customary to cite the transition features as part of the postverbal suffixes with the result that practically everyone of them appears under several variant forms (as -ation, -ition, -ion, etc.). Exceptions are the constant suffixes -ada, -age, and -eria. With all variable forms reduced to their non-variable portion, the postverbal suffixes are:

-ada -ion -age -ive -eria -ura -nte -or -ntia -ori, -orio -mento -e -bile
 
 
 

§ 146. Every verb may be said to have two distinct forms under which it can enter into a postverbal suffix derivative. The first of these combining forms or stems is always the infinitive less the infinitive endings -ar, -er, or -ir. The suffixes which combine with this stem are -ada, -age, -eria, -nte, -ntia, -mento, -bile. The last four of these require a "transition feature." In the case of verbs in -ar, it is always -a-; in the case of verbs in -er, it is -i- for -mento and -bile and -e- for -rite and -ntia; in the case of verbs in -ir, it is -i- for -mento and -bile and -ie- for -nte and -ntia. For illustrations, see § 152.

§ 147. Thus the full forms of the postverbal suffixes which combine with the infinitive less the infinitive ending (first stem) are:

                                 suffixo  (-ar)    (-er)    (-ir)
                                 -------  -------  -------  -------
                                 -ada     -ada     -ada     -ada
                                 -age     -age     -age     -age
                                 -eria    -eria    -eria    -eria
                                 -nte     -ante    -ente    -iente
                                 -ntia    -antia   -entia   -ientia
                                 -mento   -amento  -imento  -imento
                                 -bile    -abile   -ibile   -ibile
Sub iste formas le suffixos individual es tractate infra. Nota que -ante e su variantes es participios presente e como tales es tractate in §94 supra.

-------------
Secunde thema
-------------

§148 Le secunde forma o thema combinatori es o irregular - in qual caso illo es listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary (vide, per exemplo, sub figer, verter, cognoscer, etc.)1 - o resulta del prime thema per le addition de -at in le caso de verbos in -ar, o -it in le caso de verbos in -er e -ir. Le suffixos que se combina con le secunde thema es: -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio, -e.

----------
1 Pro un exposition descriptive de secunde themas irregular, vide Appendice 1. - Un systema collateral de tractar themas irregular - que es a adoptar o rejectar systematicamente, sed non a miscer casualmente con le systema delineate in le texto - se basa super un quadruple in loco de un triple gruppamento de verbos. Le gruppos con infinitivos in -ar e -ir remane inalterate.

Le gruppo de verbos listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary con infinitivos terminante in -er es subdividite in

(a) infinitivos que remane inalterate,
(b) infinitivos in -ere que non es accentuate.

Le gruppo de verbos con infinitivos in -ere non-accentuate coincide quasi completemente con ille verbos que es listate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary (e describite in Appendice 1) como habente infinitivos in -er e un secunde thema irregular. Quando iste systema es adoptate, il seque (con le duo modificationes date infra) que tote le verbos in -ere ha secunde themas irregular. Pro establir le nove gruppo complete de verbos in -ere, illo debe (a) esser facite includer un numero de verbos que es listate in le Dictionario sin un secunde thema irregular, e (b) esser reducite per alicun verbos que jam appare in le Dictionario con un thema irregular.

(a) Le gruppo de verbos in -ere include le verbos sequente que non ha secunde themas irregular:

Under these forms the individual suffixes are treated below. Note that -ante and its variants are present participles and as such are treated in § 94 above.
 
 
 
 

§ 148. The second combining form or stem is either irregular -- in which case it is given in the Interlingua-English Dictionary (see, for instance, under figer, verter, cognoscer, etc.)* -- or results from the first stem by the addition of -at- in the case of verbs in -at and of -it- in the case of verbs in -er and -it. The suffixes which combine with the second stem are -ion, -ive, -ura, -or, -ori, -orio.

__________
*For a descriptive survey of irregular second stems, see Appendix I. -- A collateral system of dealing with irregular stems -- to be adopted or rejected systematically but not to be mixed haphazardly with the system outlined in the text- is based on a fourfold in lieu of a threefold grouping of verbs. The groups with infinitives in -at and -it remain unaffected.

The group of verbs listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary with infinitives ending in -er is subdivided in

(a) infinitives which remain unaffected and
(b) infinitives in unstressed -ere.

The group of verbs with infinitives in unstressed -ere coincides almost completely with those verbs which are listed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary (and described in Appendix I) as having infinitives in -er and an irregular second stem. When this system is adopted, it follows (with the two qualifications given below) that all verbs in -ere have irregular second stems. To establish the complete new group of verbs in -ere, it must (a) be made to include a number of verbs which are listed in the Dictionary without an irregular second stem and (b) be reduced by some verbs which do appear in the Dictionary with an irregular stem.

(a) The group of verbs in -ere does include the following verbs which have no irregular second stem:

addere, appetere, arguere, congruere; incumbere, e succumbere; edere [mangiar], edere [editar], essere, fremere, furere, lambere, molere, perdere, petere, rendere, strepere, tremere, vergere, vivere, --- e lor compositos / and their compounds.
(b) Le gruppo de verbos in -ere non include le verbos sequente que ha secunde themas irregular: (b) The group of verbs in -ere does not include the following verbs which do have irregular second stems:
censer, compler, deler, docer; adherer, coherer, e inherer; indulger, luger, miscer, morder, mover, mulger, pender, posseder, rider, seder; assider, dissider, presider, resider, subsider, e obsider; sorber, sponder, suader, tener, tonder, torquer, torrer, vider, --- e lor compositos / and their compounds.
In reguardo de omne derivatos, le verbos in -ere non-accentuate seque le patrono describite in le texto pro verbos in -er accentuate. Omne le participios passate in -ite (sia de verbos in -er o -ere) es accentuate super le tertie syllaba ab le fin e non es afficite per le orthographia collateral discutite in §15h supra.
---
§149 Per ligar le elementos -at e -it con le suffixos listate, un exposition de formas resulta in le qual le distinction inter le prime e secunde thema debe esser mantenite solo pro verbos con un secunde thema irregular. Le formas es:
In regard to all derivatives the verbs in unstressed -ere follow the patterns described in the text for verbs in stressed -er. All past participles in -ite (whether from verbs in -er or -ere) are stressed on the third syllable from the end and are not affected by the collateral spelling discussed in § 15h above.
---
§ 149. By linking the elements -at- and -it- with the suffixes listed, a survey of forms results in which the distinction between first and second stem need be maintained only for verbs with an irregular second stem. The forms are:
                          Verbos regular           Verbos irregular
                     (addite al prime thema)  (addite al secunde thema)
                       (-ar)    (-er, -ir)         (-ar, -er, -ir)
                     -----------------------  -------------------------                             
                      -ation      -ition                -ion
                      -ative      -itive                -ive
                      -atura      -itura                -ura
                      -ator       -itor                 -or
                      -atori      -itori                -ori
                      -atorio     -itorio               -orio
                      -ate        -ite                  -e
§150 Nota: Omne verbos pote esser tractate como regular con le resultato de duplettos como

facer (fac-/fact-) -> factor o facitor; tender (tend-/tens-) -> tenditor o tensor: uno qui tende; etc.

In nove formationes le variante regular es generalmente preferite. Le suffixo -ate e su variantes forma adjectivos participial como tractate in §95 supra. Le suffixo -bile, que se combina regularmente con le prime thema, es ligate al secunde thema irregular quando illo termina in -pt, -st, -s, -ss, o -x.

§151 Concernente le uso del formas infinitive complete como substantivos, vide §83 supra.

§ 150. Note: All verbs may be treated as regular with the result of doublets like

facer 'to make') factor or facitor 'maker'; tender 'to stretch' > tenditor or tensor 'stretcher (one who stretches)'; etc.

In new formations the regular variant is generally preferred. The suffix -ate and its variants form participial adjectives as treated in § 95 above. The suffix -bile which combines regularly with the first stem, is joined to the irregular second stem when it ends in -pt-, -st-, -s-, -ss-, or -x-.

§ 151. On the use of the full infinitive forms as nouns, see § 83 above.

§152 Substantivos e adjectivos es derivate ab verbos per medio del suffixos listate infra. Le desinentias infinitive in parentheses post le variantes de suffixo identifica le classe de verbos regular al qual le uso de un suffixo particular es restringite. Le variantes de suffixo que es restringite in uso a combinationes con secunde themas irregular es explicitemente identificate como tales.

-------------------------------
Substantivos derivate ab verbos
-------------------------------

-ada = continuate o prolongate action de ...; p.ex. cavalcar: ir a cavallo -> cavalcada: action de cavalcar;
nove formation: currer -> currada;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

-age = action o processo de ...; p.ex. acierar: laminar con aciero -> acierage: placage de aciero;
nove formationes: borrar -> borrage: (action de) borrar; contrafacer -> contrafaciage;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138; scribite -agi ante -a o -o de suffixo additional. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.

-amento (-ar), -imento (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. arrangiar -> arrangiamento; abolir -> abolimento;
nove formation: fagottar: ligar in fasces -> fagottamento; fulger -> fulgimento;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) = uno qui o lo que...; p.ex. brillar -> brillante; studer -> studente; emollir [Medicina] -> emolliente;
nove formationes: formar -> formante; diriger -> dirigente: director, conductor, gerente; inhibir -> inhibiente;
Nota: In forma identic con le participio presente del qual illo es un substantivation. Vide §93, specialmente le nota. In signification similar a -ator etc. sed accentuante le progresso del action.
 
 
 

-antia (-ar), -entia (-er), -ientia (-ir) = stato o qualitate de ...; p.ex. tolerar -> tolerantia; adolescer: devenir adulte -> adolescentia; experir -> experientia;
nove formationes: irradiar -> irradiantia; arder -> ardentia; inciper -> incipientia;
Nota: Identic in forma con derivato in -ia del participio presente. Vide §93, specialmente le nota, e §141.
 
 
 

-ation (-ar), -ition (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. installar -> installation; adder -> addition; audir -> audition;
nove formationes: atomisar -> atomisation; amollir -> amollition; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ion es usate con ille thema. P.ex. convenir (-ven-/-vent-) -> convention,
nove formationes: derelinquer (-linqu-/-lict-) -> dereliction; consentir (-sent-/-sens-) -> consension;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 
 

-ator (-ar), -itor (-er, -ir) = uno qui, o lo que ...; p.ex. administrar -> administrator; accelerar -> accelerator; consumer -> consumitor; expedir -> expeditor;
nove formationes: ponderar -> ponderator; siccar -> siccator; urger -> urgitor; compartir -> compartitor; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -or es usate con ille thema. P.ex. distribuer (-tribu-/-tribut-) -> distributor;
nove formationes: franger (-frang-/-fract-) -> fractor; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) -> exhaustor;
Nota: In signification similar a -ante etc. le qual es preferite in le caso de verbos in -escer. Le correspondente forma feminin es -atrice etc.
 
 
 
 
 

-atorio (-ar), -itorio (-er, -ir) = loco ubi, installation o instrumento con le qual, ... es facite; p.ex. laborar -> laboratorio; abatter: -> abattitorio; audir -> auditorio;
nove formationes: fumar -> fumatorio; biber -> bibitorio; blanchir -> blanchitorio; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -orio es usate con ille thema. P.ex. scriber (-scrib-/-script-) -> scriptorio;
nove formation: calefacer (-fac-/-fact-) -> calefactorio: installation pro calefacer;
 
 
 
 
 
 

-atrice (-ar), -itrice (-er, -ir) = un femina qui ...; p.ex. imperar -> imperatrice; consumer -> consumitrice; expedir -> expeditrice;
nove formationes: crear -> creatrice; moner -> monitrice; audir -> auditrice; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -rice es usate con ille thema, a condition que illo termina in -t. Con altere themas irregular, le formation es a evitar. - P.ex. ager (ag-/act-) -> actrice;
nove formation: sarcir (sarc-/sart-) -> sartrice;
Nota: Synonymo del correspondente forma masculin, -ator etc., modificate per le suffixo -essa.
 
 
 

-atura (-ar), -itura (-er, -ir) = action o resultato de ...; p.ex. filar -> filatura; crear -> creatura; vestir -> vestitura;
nove formationes: martellar -> martellatura; nutrir -> nutritura; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ura es usate con ille thema. P.ex. miscer (misc-/mixt-) -> mixtura; aperir (-per-/-pert-) -> apertura;
nove formationes: tanger (tang-/tact-) -> tactura; sarcir (sarc-/sart-) -> sartura;
Nota: Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 
 
 
 

-eria 1. = loco ubi ... es facite; p.ex. distillar -> distilleria;
nove formationes: blanchir -> blancheria; piscar -> pischeria: loco a piscar; 2. = arte, mestiero, commercio, o practica de ...; etiam: le producto de tal travalio; p.ex. brodar -> broderia;
nove formation: robar -> roberia;
Nota: Pro formationes ab substantivos, vide §138. Pro synonymos e quasi-synonymos, vide §154.
 
 

-----------------------------
Adjectivos derivate ab verbos
-----------------------------

>-abile (-ar), -ibile (-er, -ir) = que pote esser ...te; que es digne a ...; p.ex. observar -> observabile; admirar -> admirabile; leger -> legibile; audir -> audibile;
nove formationes: exaggerar -> inexaggerabile; financiar -> financiabile; finir -> finibile; franger -> frangibile; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le forma -ibile es usate con ille thema quando illo termina in -s, -pt, -st, o -x. P.ex. perciper (-cip-/-cept-) -> perceptibile;
nove formation: tonder (tond-/tons-) -> intonsibile; Vide etiam §150 supra.
 
 
 
 
 

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) = que ...; p.ex. abundar -> abundante; coherer: -> coherente; obedir -> obediente;
nove formationes: florar -> florante; subscriber -> subscribente; inhibir -> inhibiente;
Nota: Identic con participio presente. Vide §93, specialmente le nota.
 
 
 
 

-ate (-ar), -ite (-er, -ir)
1. = essente ...te; p.ex. concentrar -> concentrate; addormir -> addormite; posseder -> possedite;
nove formationes: civilisar -> civilisate; perder -> perdite; prohibir -> prohibite;
2. = habente ...te; p.ex. mediar -> mediate; tacer: esser silente -> tacite;
nove formationes: germinar -> germinate; jacer -> jacite; cader -> cadite; faller -> fallite;

In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -e es usate con ille thema. P.ex. confunder (-fund-/-fus-) -> confuse;
nove formation: scriber (scrib-/script-) -> scripte;
Nota: Identic con le participio passate. Vide §§95-97.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

-ative (-ar), -itive (-er, -ir)
1. = tendente a ...; p.ex. sedar -> sedative; depler -> depletive; fugir -> fugitive;
nove formationes: isolar -> isolative;, moner -> monitive; finir -> finitive;
2. = habente le function de ...; p.ex. demonstrar -> demonstrative; compler -> completive; partir -> partitive;
nove formationes: alligar -> alligative; circumjacer -> circumjacitive; guarnir -> guarnitive;

In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ive es usate con ille thema. P.ex. reciper (-cip-/-cept-) -> receptive; defender (-fend-/-fens-) -> defensive;
nove formationes: eveller (-vell-/-vuls-) -> evulsive; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) -> exhaustive;
 
 
 
 

-atori (-ar), -itori (-er, -ir) = pertinente a, o serviente pro, le action de ...; p.ex. circular -> circulatori; merer -> meritori; transir -> transitori;
nove formationes: ventilar -> ventilatori; coercer -> coercitori; In le caso de verbos que ha un secunde thema irregular, le variante curte -ori es usate con ille thema. P.ex. deluder (-lud-/-lus-) -> delusori;
nove formationes: sentir (-sent-/-sens-) -> sensori; accender (-cend-/-cens-) -> accensori;
Nota: Frequentemente servi como le adjectivo general que refere a substantivos in -ion.

§ 152. Nouns and adjectives are derived from verbs by means of the suffixes listed below. The infinitive endings in parentheses following the suffix variants identify the class of regular verbs to which the use of a particular suffix is restricted. The suffix variants restricted in use to combinations with irregular second stems are explicitly identified as such.
 

------------------------
Nouns derived from verbs
------------------------

-ada n 'continued or prolonged action of ...ing' e.g. cavalcar 'to ride on horseback' > cavalcada 'horseback ride';
new formation: currer 'to run' > currada 'running, run'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.
 

-age n 'action or process of ...ing' e.g. acierar 'to plate with steel' > acierage 'steel plating';
new formations: borrar 'to stuff' > borrage '(action of) stuffing'; contrafacer 'to counterfeit' > contrafaciage 'counterfeiting'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138; spelled -agi- before -a- or -o- of additional suffix. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-amento (-ar), -imento (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. arrangiar 'to arrange' > arrangiamento 'arrangement'; abolir 'to abolish' > abolimento 'abolishment';
new formation: fagottar 'to fagot, bind into bundles' > fagottamento 'fagoting'; fulger 'to flash' > fulgimento 'flash, fulguration'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -ientia (-ir) n 'one who or that which is ...ing or ...s' e.g. brillar 'to shine' > brillante 'brilliant'; studer 'to study' > studente 'student'; emollir [Med.] 'to soften, to mollify' > emolliente 'emollient';
new formations: formar 'to form' > formante 'formant'; diriger 'to direct, guide, manage'> dirigente 'director conductor, manager'; inhibir 'to inhibit' > inhibiente 'inhibiter, inhibitor'
Note: In form identical with the present participle of which it is a substantivization. See § 93, especially the note. In meaning akin to -ator etc. but stressing the cut progress of the action.

-antia (, -entia (-er), -ientia (-ir) n 'state or quality of... ing' e.g. tolerar 'to tolerate' > tolerantia 'tolerance'; adolescer 'to grow up, to become adolescent' > adolescentia 'adolescence'; experir 'to try' > experientia 'experience';
new formations: irradiar 'to irradiate' > irradiantia 'irradiance'; arder 'to burn' > ardentia 'ardency'; inciper 'to begin' > incipientia 'incipience, incipiency'
Note: Identical in form with derivative in '-ia from the present participle. See § 93, especially the note, and § 141.

-ation (-ar), -ition (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. installar 'to install' &gt> installation; adder 'to add' > addition; audir 'to hear' > audition;
new formations: atomisar 'to atomize' > atomisation 'atomization'; amollir 'to soften' > amollition 'softening'
In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ion is used with that stem. E.g. convenir (-ven-/-vent-) 'to convene' > convention;
new formations: derelinquer (-linqu-/-lict-) 'to forsake' > dereliction; consentir (-sent-/-sens-) 'to consent' > consension 'consenting, consent.'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-ator (-at), -itor (-er, -ir) n 'one who, or that which ...s' e.g. administrar 'to administrate' > administrator; accelerar 'to accelerate' > accelerator; consumer 'to consume' > consumitor 'consumer'; expedir 'to send off' > expeditor 'sender';
new formations: ponderar 'to ponder' > ponderator 'ponderer'; siccar 'to dry' > siccator 'drier'; urger 'to urge' > urgitor 'urger'; compartir 'to partition' > compartitor 'partitioner' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -or is used with that stem. E.g. distribuer (-tribu-/-tribut-) 'to distribute' > distributor;
new formations: franger (-frang-/-fract-) 'to break' > fractor 'breaker'; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) > exhaustor.
Note: In meaning akin to -ante etc. which is to be preferred in the case of verbs in -escer. The corresponding feminine form is -atrice etc.

-atorio (-ar), -itorio (-er, -ir) n 'place where, installation or instrument with which, ...ing is done' e.g. laborar 'to work' > laboratorio 'laboratory'; abatter 'to knock or cast down' > abattitorio 'slaughterhouse'; audir 'to hear' > auditorio 'auditorium';
new formations: fumar 'to fume, smoke' > fumatorio 'smoke house, smoking room, etc.'; biber 'to drink' > bibitorio 'drinking place'; blanchir 'to bleach' > blanchitorio 'bleaching ground' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -orio is used with that stem. E.g. scriber (-scrib-/-script-) 'to write' > scriptorio 'writing desk';
new formation: calefacer (-fac-/-fact-) 'to heat' > calefactorio 'heating plant.'

-atrice (-ar), -itrice (-er, ir) n 'a woman who ...s' e.g. imperar 'to rule over' > imperatrice 'empress'; consumer 'to consume' > consumitrice '(woman) consumer'; expedir 'to send off' > expeditrice '(woman) sender';
new formations: crear 'to create' > creatrice 'creatress'; moner 'to admonish' > monitrice '(woman) admonisher'; audir 'to hear' > auditrice '(woman) hearer' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -rice is used with that stem, provided it ends in -t-. With other irregular stems, the formation is to be avoided. E.g. ager (ag-/act-) 'to act' > actrice 'actress';
new formation: sarcir (sarc-/sart-) 'to mend' > sartrice 'dressmaker, seamstress.'
Note: Synonym of the corresponding male form, -ator etc., modified by the suffix -essa.

-atura (-ar), -itura (-er, -ir) n 'action or result of ...ing' e.g. filar 'to spin' > filatura '(act of) spinning'; crear 'to create' > creatura 'creature'; vestir 'to dress' > vestitura 'clothing';
new formations: martellar 'to hammer' > martellatura 'hammering'; nutrir 'to nourish' > nutritura '(act of) nourishing, nutrition' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ura is used with that stem. E.g. miscer (misc- / mixt-) 'to mix' > mixtura 'mixture'; aperir (-per- / -pert-) 'to open' > apertura 'opening';
new formations: tanger (tang- / tact-) 'to touch' > tactura 'touching'; sarcir (sarc- / sart-) 'to mend' > sartura 'mending, repair.'
Note: For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-eria n 1. 'place where... is done' e.g. distillar 'to distill' > distilleria 'distillery';
new formations: blanchir 'to bleach' > blancheria 'bleachery'; piscar 'to fish' > pischeria 'fishing place'; 2. 'art, craft, trade, or practice of ...ing; also: the product of such work' e.g. brodar 'to embroider' > broderia 'embroidery';
new formation: robar 'to rob' > roberia 'robbery'
Note: For formations from nouns, see § 138. For synonyms and quasi-synonyms, see § 154.

-----------------------------
Adjectives derived from verbs
-----------------------------

-abile (-ar) -ibile (-er,-ir) adj 'that can be ...ed; that is worthy to be ...ed' e.g. observar 'to observe' > observabile 'observable'; admirar 'to admire' > admirabile 'admirable'; leger 'to read' > legibile 'readable, legible'; audir 'to hear' > audibile 'audible';
new formations: exaggerar 'to exaggerate' > inexaggerabile 'inexaggerable'; financiar 'to finance' > financiabile 'financeable, that can be financed'; finir 'finish' > finibile 'finishable,'; franger 'to break' > frangibile 'frangible, breakable' In case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the form -ibile is used with that stem when it ends in -s-, -pt-, -st-, or -x-. E.g. perciper (-cip-/-cept-) 'to perceive > perceptibile 'perceptible';
new formation: tonder (tond-/tons-) 'to cut' 'intonsibile 'uncuttable.' See also § 150 above.

-ante (-ar), -ente (-er), -iente (-ir) adj '...ing, that ...s' e.g. abundar 'to abound' > abundante 'abounding, abundant'; coherer 'to cohere, be coherent' > coherente 'coherent'; obedir 'to obey' > obediente 'obedient';
new formations: florar 'to flower, to flourish' > florante 'flowering, flourishing'; subscriber 'to subscribe' > subscribente 'subscribing'; inhibit 'to inhibit' > inhibiente 'inhibiting'
Note: Identical with present participle. See § 93, especially the note.

-ate (-ar), -ite (-er, -ir) adj
1. '...ed, being...ed' e.g. concentrar 'to concentrate' > concentrate 'concentrated'; addormir 'to put to sleep' > ardormite 'asleep'; posseder 'to possess' > possedite 'possessed';
new formations: civilisar 'to civilize' > civilisate 'civilized'; perder 'to lose' > perdite 'lost'; prohibir 'to prohibit, forbid' prohibite 'prohibited, forbidden';
2. '...ed, having ...ed' e.g. mediar 'to mediate' > mediate 'mediate'; tacer 'to be silent' > tacite 'tacit';
new formations: germinar 'to germinate' > germinate 'germinated'; jacer 'to lie' > jacite 'lying down'; cader 'to fall' > cadite 'fallen'; faller 'to fail' > fallite 'failed, that has failed'

In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -e is used with that stem. E.g. confunder (-fund-/-fus-) 'to confuse' > confuse 'confused';
new formation: scriber (scrib- / script-) 'to write' > scripte 'written.'
Note: Identical with the past participle. See §§ 95-97.

-ative (-ar), -itive (-er, -ir) adj
1. 'tending to ...' e.g. sedar 'to soothe' > sedative; depler 'deplete' > depletive; fugir 'to flee' > fugitive;
new formations: isolar 'to isolate' > isolative; moner 'to admonish' > monitive 'admonitive'; finir 'to finish' finitive 'concluding';
2. 'having the function of ...ing' e.g. demonstrar 'to demonstrate' > demonstrative; compler 'to complete' > completive; partir 'to part, divide' > partitive;
new formations: alligar 'to bind' > alligative 'binding'; circumjacer 'to surround' > circumjacitive 'surrounding'; guarnir 'to decorate, trim' > guarnitive 'decorative'

In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ive is used with that stem. E.g. reciper (-cip-/-cept-) 'to receive' > receptive; defender (-fend-/-fens-) 'to defend' > defensive;
new formations: eveller (-vell-/-vuls-) 'to tear out' > evulsive 'tending to tear out'; exhaurir (-haur-/-haust-) 'to exhaust' exhaustive.

-atori (-at), -itori (-er, -ir) adj 'pertaining to, or serving for, the action of ...ing' e.g. circular 'to circulate' > circulatori 'circulatory'; merer 'to merit' > meritori 'meritorious'; transit 'to go across' > transitori 'transitory';
new formations: ventilar 'to ventilate' > ventilatori 'ventilatory'; coercer 'to coerce' > coercitori 'coercive' In the case of verbs which have an irregular second stem, the short variant -ori is used with that stem. E.g. deluder (-lud-/-lus-) 'to delude' > delusori 'delusory';
new formations: sentir (-sent-/-sens-) 'to feel' > sensori 'sensory'; accender (-cend-/-cens-) 'to light, ignite' > accensori 'lighting, igniting.'
Note: Frequently serving as the general adjective relating to nouns in -ion.

-----------------------------
Suffixos postverbal adjective
-----------------------------

§153 Il ha cinque SUFFIXOS POSTVERBAL ADJECTIVE.

(1) -abile, -ibile exprime que le action pote o poterea o deberea esser applicate a un cosa o persona:

causar - causabile: miraculos es causabile solmente per fortias supernatural [miraculos pote esser causate solmente per fortias supernatural]

(2) -ante, -ente, -iente exprime que un cosa o persona exeque le action del verbo: causar - causante: le factor causante le accidente [le factor que causa le accidente]

(3) -ate, -ite, -e exprime que un action, que non plus es in progresso, concerneva un cosa o persona: causar - causate: le accidente causate per su negligentia [le accidente que su negligentia causava]

(4) -ative, -itive, -ive exprime que un cosa o persona tende a, es apte a, etc. exequer le action del verbo: causar - causative: le distinction de plure factores causative [le distinction de plure factores que tende a causar, es probabile o apte a causar un certe resultato]

(5) -atori, -itori, -ori exprime que un cosa o persona ha de un modo o un altere relation a, o connexion con le action del verbo: causar - causatori: le aspecto causatori del problema [le aspecto del problema que concerne como illo esseva causate]

-----------------------------
Postverbal adjective suffixes
-----------------------------

§ 153. There are five POSTVERBAL ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES:

1. -ante (-ente, -iente);
2. -ative (-itive, -ire);
3. -atori (-itori, -ori);
4. -ate (-ite, -e);
5. -abile (-ibile).

They express in this order:

1. that a thing or person is performing the action of the verb (causar -- causante 'causing': le factor causaute le accidente 'the factor which causes the accident');

2. that a thing or person tends to, is apt to, etc. perform the action of the verb (causar- causative 'causative': le distinction de plure factores causative 'the distinction of several factors which tend to cause, are likely or apt to cause a certain result'):

3. that a thing or person is somehow related to, or connected with, the action of the verb (causar -- causatori 'causatory': le aspecto causatori del problema 'the aspect of the problem which has to do with how it was caused');

4. that the action, no longer in progress, was applied to a thing or person (causar--causate 'caused': le accidente causate per su neglecto 'the accident which was caused by his negligence, which his negligence caused');

5. that the action can or could or ought to be applied to a thing or person (causar--causabile 'causable': miraculos es causabile solmente per fortias supernatural 'miracles can be caused only by supernatural forces').

-------------------------------
Suffixos postverbal substantive
-------------------------------

§154 Del SUFFIXOS POSTVERBAL SUBSTANTIVE, plures exprime aspectos plus o minus distincte del action del verbo. Illos es:

1. -ada;
2. -age;
3. -eria;
4. -amento (-imento);
5. -ation (-ition, -ion);
6. -atura (-itura, -ura); al quales pote esser addite
7. -antia (-entia, -ientia) e
8. le desinentia del infinitivo usate como un substantivo, -ar (-er, -ir).

Lor distinction es sovente un caso de nuances accentuate, e in satis multe casos un formation pote assumer le loco del altere sin cambio perceptibile de signification. Le uso de illos omnes con le mesme verbo pote difficilemente esser obtenite sin artificio, sed pote servir pro definir lor connotationes individual de valor.

Con procurar como un exemplo fortuite, le resultante postverbal substantivos de action es:
1. procurada;
2. procurage;
3. procureria;
4. procuramento;
5. procuration;
6. procuratura;
7. procurantia;
8. procurar.

(1) -ada exprime action complite e vidite como un integritate, o in su resultatos o como un continuitate comprensive. Illo se presta facilemente a esser usate in le plural. Procurada - pote significar un procuration excessive a que on refere con emphase super su successo o rendimento.

(2) -age exprime action complite o essente complite e vidite como un singule resultato o como un integre serie de tales. Illo ha un tendentia a remaner sufficientemente abstracte pro resister a pluralisation. Procurage - pote significar le procedura de procurar alique con emphase implicate super effortio, expensa, etc. involvite o le occupation de un persona concernite con procurar cosas, tal occupation essente vidite como consistente de un serie de proceduras de procurage.

(3) -eria exprime action vidite como parte de un commercio, occupation, campo de interprisa, etc. involvente etiam le production correspondente o in toto o in pecias individual. Procureria - pote significar le practica (con omne su implicationes) de un persona le occupation de qui es procurar cosas. Isto es a parte del signification plus crystallisate del loco de commercio de un tal persona.

(4) -amento exprime action vidite con referentia a su effectos e resultatos. Procuramento - pote significar procuramento como un acto o action e le effortio(s) pro procurar alique.

(5) -ation exprime action o un action vidite como un processo concrete que pote esser repetite e a que assi pote esser referite in le plural. Procuration - significa procurar como un execution definite.

(6) -atura exprime action vidite con referentia a su producto individual e assi ille producto ipse como etiam, con extension, le activitate del qual le producto individual pote presentar se como un symbolo. Procuratura - pote significar le facto de procurar como etiam un organisation o officio instaurate pro procurar provisiones pro certe requirimentos.

(7) -antia exprime action vidite como le stato del agente qui lo exeque. Procurantia - pote significar procurar como un assignation que pone certe exigentias super le persona involvite.

(8) -ar exprime action como action, il es, vidite como un phenomeno abstracte que non pote esser pluralisate. Procurar - significa le (action de) procurar.
Nota: Le distinction logic inter le plure substantivos postverbal de action not pote esser continuate longe. In practica, le selection de un o le altere formation es sovente governate per considerationes non-logic, lo que non los rende minus vital. Lor importantia e effecto coincide, in general, con le usage anglese.

------------------------
Postverbal noun suffixes
------------------------

§ 154. Of the POSTVERBAL NOUN SUFFIXES several express more or less distinct aspects of the action of the verb. They are:

1. -ada;
2. -age;
3. -eria;
4. -amento (-imento);
5. -ation (-ition, -ion);
6. -atura (-itura, -ura); to which may be added
7. -antia (-entia, -ientia) and
8. the ending of the infinitive used as a noun, -ar (-er, -ir).
 

Their distinction is often a matter of nuances emphasized, and in a good many instances one formation may take the place of another without appreciable shift of meaning. The use of all of them with one and the same verb can hardly be achieved without artifice but may serve to define their individual connotations of value.
 

With procurar 'to procure' as a random example, the resulting postverbal action nouns are:
1. procurada;
2. procurage;
3. procureria;
4. procuramento;
5. procuration;
6. procuratura;
7. procurantia;
8. procurar.

1. -ada expresses action done and viewed as a whole, either in its results or as one sweeping continuity. It lends itself readily to being used in the plural. Procurada might signify a procurement spree referred to with emphasis on its success or yield.
 

2. -age expresses action done or being done and viewed as a single achievement or as a whole series of such. It tends to remain sufficiently abstract to resist pluralization. Procurage might signify the procedure of procuring something with implied emphasis on the effort, expense, etc. involved or the occupation of a person concerned with procuring things, such occupation being viewed as consisting of a series of procurage procedures.
 

3. -eria expresses action viewed as part of a business, occupation, field of endeavor, etc. involving as well the corresponding production either as a whole or in individual pieces. Procureria might signify the practice (with all its implications) of a person whose business it is to procure things. This aside from the more crystallized meaning of the place of business of such a person.

4. -amento expresses action viewed with reference to its effects and results. Procuramento might signify procurement as an act or action and the endeavor to procure something.

5. -ation expresses action or an action viewed as a tangible process which can be repeated and hence referred to in the plural. Procuration means procuring as a definite performance.
 

6. -atura expresses action viewed with reference to its individual product and hence that product itself as well as, by extension, the activity of which the individual product may stand as a symbol. Procuratura might signify the fact of procuring as well as an organization or office set up to procure supplies for certain requirements.

7. -antia expresses action viewed as the state of the agent performing it. Procurantia might mean procuring as an assignment which makes certain demands upon the person involved.

8. -ar expresses action as action, that is, viewed as an abstract phenomenon which cannot be pluralized. Procurar signifies procuring.

Note: The logical distinction between the several postverbal action nouns cannot be carried very far. In practice the choice of one or the other formation is often governed by non-logical considerations which are not therefore less vital. Their import and effect coincide, broadly speaking, with English usage.

==============
II Composition
==============

§155 Le termino COMPOSITION es usate hic pro referer al formation de vocabulos per le combination de un vocabulo e un prefixo, o de duo vocabulos complete. In ambe casos le portion prefixate del composito modifica le secunde elemento le qual determina le parte de discurso del vocabulo resultante. Nota que le secunde elemento sovente se establi como representante un date parte del discurso solmente per le processo de composition. P.ex. in rehabilitar, le prefixo pare modificar un verbo habilitar, sed illo de facto se establi directemente super le base de habile. In le expositiones sequente iste phenomeno ha essite considerate normal e dunque non necessita commento special. Vide etiam §163 infra.
 

--------------------------------------
II.A Composition per medio de prefixos
--------------------------------------

§156 Il es conveniente distinguer inter PREFIXOS GENERAL e TECHNIC. Le distinction seque nulle regula rigide sed resulta del facto (le qual pare esser characteristic de omne linguas moderne e certemente non es un tracto distinctive de Interlingua) que terminologias scientific opera con prefixos que es rarmente incontrate in le vocabulario general quotidian.

===========
COMPOUNDING
===========

§ 155. II. -- The term COMPOUNDING is here used to refer to word building by the combination of one word and a prefix or of two full-fledged words. In either case the prefixed portion of the compound modifies the second element which determines the part of speech of the resulting formation. Note that the second element often establishes itself as representing a given part of speech only through the compounding process. E.g. in rehabilitar 'to rehabilitate,' the prefix seems to modify a verb habilitar 'to habilitate' but it actually establishes itself directly on the basis of habile 'able.' In the following surveys this phenomenon has been considered normal and therefore not in need of special comment. See also § 163 below.
 
 
 
 
 

§ 156. II.A.--It is convenient to distinguish between GENERAL and TECHNICAL PREFIXES. The distinction follows no hard-and-fast rule but results from the fact (which seems to be characteristic of all modern languages and is certainly no distinctive feature of Interlingua) that scientific terminologies operate with prefixes which are rarely found in the general everyday vocabulary.

-----------------------
II.A.a Prefixos general
-----------------------

§157 Le PREFIXOS GENERAL sequente es usate pro modificar substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos como indicate in cata occurrentia:

ad- (in verbos) = a, verso, a in; p.ex. judicar -> adjudicar; currer -> accurrer: venir currente; costa -> accostar: approchar le costa, adressar o diriger se a (alicuno);
nove formationes: rider -> arrider: rider se de;
Nota: Per extension del signification 'motion verso', ad- exprime etiam 'cambio in', 'augmento de intensitate', etc. P.ex. clar -> acclarar: facer plus clar. - Subjecte a assimilation ante consonantes altere que -d, -h, -j, -m, e -v.
 
 

ante- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = precedente in tempore o spatio; p.ex. camera -> antecamera; penultime -> antepenultime; diluvio -> antediluvian; poner -> anteponer;
nove formationes: eternitate -> anteeternitate; margine -> antemarginal [Botanica]; arar -> antearar: arar preliminarmente (ante le ver aratura);
Nota: Synonymo de pre-. Antonymo de post-.
 
 
 

anti- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = opponite a, contra; opposite; p.ex. arctic -> antarctic; papa -> antipapa;
nove formationes: idealista -> antiidealista; Freud -> antifreudian;
Nota: Le variante ant- (non in uso active) appare ante vocales e -h, p.ex. helminthe: verme intestinal -> anthelminthic: vermifuge; Antonymo de pro-.
 

auto- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = ipse, (alicuno/alique) mesme, de o per se mesme; p.ex. biographia -> autobiographia; mobile -> automobile;
nove formation: analyse -> autoanalyse;
Nota: Le variante aut- (non in uso active) appare ante vocales, p.ex. -onym -> autonymo;
 
 

circum- (in verbos e adjectivos) = circa, in position o motion plus o minus circular; p.ex. navigar -> circumnavigar; polo -> circumpolar; vicin -> circumvicin;
nove formation: zenit -> circumzenital [Meteorologia];
Nota: Le variante circu- (non in uso active) appare ante -i, p.ex. ir -> circuir: ir circum;
 
 

co- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = juncte, associate; p.ex. national -> conational: del mesme pais; hereditario -> cohereditario;
nove formationes: naufrago: persona de un nave destruite -> conaufrago: companion naufrago; ideal -> coidealista: adherente del mesme ideal;
Nota: Coincide con co-, un variante de con- usate ante vocales e -h.
 

con- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = con, insimul, junctemente, mutualmente; p.ex. matre -> commatre: matrina; latere -> collateral; temporanee -> contemporanee; exister -> coexister; religion -> correligionario;
nove formationes: generic -> congeneric; fixar -> confixar: fixar junctemente; partitario: adherente de un partito -> compartitario: adherente del mesme partito;
Nota: Appare como co- ante -h e vocales; col- ante -l; com- ante -b, -m, -p; cor- ante -r; le variante co- coincide con le prefixo co- supra.
 
 

contra- (in substantivos e verbos) = contra, opponente; contrari a; p.ex. balancia -> contrabalancia; dicer -> contradicer;
nove formationes: manifesto -> contramanifesto; fluer -> contrafluer;
 
 

dis- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)
1. = a parte, separatemente; dividite, dispersate; p.ex. rumper -> disrumper;
nove formation: jacer -> disjicer: dispersar (circum se), jectar in omne directiones;
2. = non ..., contrari o opposite de ...; p.ex. contente -> discontente; harmonia -> disharmonia;
nove formationes: credentia -> discredentia; acido -> disacidificar;
Nota: In senso (2) synonymo de non- e in-.
 
 

ex- (in substantivos) = precedente, previe; p.ex. presidente -> ex-presidente;
nove formation: convicto -> ex-convicto;
Nota: Preferibilemente partite per un tracto de union.

extra-
1. (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = extra, al exterior, externe; foras le sphera de ...; p.ex. dorso -> extradorso [Architectura]; muro -> extramural; vaso: (sanguine) vasculo -> extravasar [Anatomia];
nove formation: lege -> extralegal;
2. (in adjectivos) = multo, extraordinarimente, plus que usual; p.ex. fin -> extrafin: superfin;
nove formation: longe -> extralonge;
Nota: In senso (1) antonymo de intra-.
 
 

gran- (in nomines del parentela) = ... "grande", "ulterior"; p.ex. patre -> granpatre; amita -> granamita;
nove formation: papa -> granpapa;
Nota: Pro reduplication additional, le prefixo pro- es disponibile; p.ex. progranamita: gran-gran-amita.

in-
I. (in verbos) = in, a in; p.ex. ducer -> inducer;
nove formation: capsula -> incapsular: includer in un capsula;
Nota: Appare como il- ante -l; im- ante -b, -m, e -p; ir- ante -r; exprime position in o super, motion a in, cambio a in, etc. Le synonymo en- occurre in parolas technic, §158.
II. (in substantivos e adjectivos) = non ...; carente de ...; manco de ... p.ex. action -> inaction; regular -> irregular;
nove formation: disciplina -> indisciplina;
Nota: Appare como i- ante -gn; il- ante -l; im- ante -b, -m, -p; ir- ante -r. Synonymo de dis- e non-.
 

inter- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = inter, intra; p.ex. linear -> interlinear; acto: (de un drama) -> interacto; maxilla -> intermaxiliar;
nove formation: racia -> interracial;
 

intra- (in adjectivos) = in, intra, al interior, interne; p.ex. venose -> intravenose;
nove formation: pelvic -> intrapelvic [Anatomia];
Nota: Antonymo de extra-.

intro- (in verbos) = intro, verso le interior; p.ex. ducer: conducer -> introducer;
nove formation: suger -> introsuger;
Nota: Formationes specific pote esser date antonymos in extro-; p.ex. introversion - extroversion.
 

mis- (in verbos) = in modo mal, false, o incorrecte; p.ex. interpretar -> misinterpretar;
nove formation: nominar -> misnominar;
 
 

non- (in substantivos e adjectivos) = non ..., manco o absentia de ...; p.ex. conformista -> nonconformista; senso -> nonsenso;
nove formationes: cyclic -> noncyclic; usage -> nonusage;
Nota: Synonymo de dis- e in-.
 

per- (in verbos)
1. = (passante tote le via) per ..., a transverso de (tote le ...); p.ex. forar -> perforar;
nove formation: vader -> pervader;
2. = completemente, toto; extrememente, multo; p.ex. venir -> pervenir: succeder venir;
nove formation: leger -> perleger: leger in detalio;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo de trans-. Etiam usate como un prefixo technic con substantivos e adjectivos chimic. P.ex. oxydo: (...que contine oxygeno) -> peroxydo: (...que contine le maximo de oxygeno);
nove formation: boric -> perboric.
 

post- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = post, sequente in tempore, loco, o ordine; p.ex. poner -> postponer: ajornar, procrastinar; glacie -> postglacial;
nove formationes: pagar -> postpagar: pagar in arretrato; impressionista -> postimpressionista;
Nota: Antonymo de pre- (e ante-).
 

pre- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = precedente in tempore, position o rango; p.ex. dominar -> predominar; historia -> prehistoria; matur -> prematur;
nove formationes: gustar -> pregustar; newtonian -> prenewtonian;
Nota: Synonymo de ante-, antonymo de post-.
 
 

pro-
1. (in substantivos e adjectivos) = pro, in favor de, prendente le partito de ...; p.ex. semita -> prosemitic; german -> progerman;
2. (in verbos) = avante, in avante; p.ex. longe -> prolongar;
nove formation: traher -> protraher;
Nota: In senso (1) antonymo de anti-. Pro le uso in nomines de parentela, vide gran- supra.
 

re- (in verbos)
1. = retro, a retro; p.ex. flecter -> reflecter;
nove formation: lancear -> relancear;
2. = de novo (de nove?
, altere vice; p.ex. nove -> renovar;
nove formation: colonisar -> recolonisar;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo del plus explicite retro-.
 

retro- (in verbos) = retro, a retro; p.ex. ceder -> retroceder;
nove formation: ducer: conducer, guidar -> retroducer: ducer a retro;
Nota: Synonymo del minus explicite re-. Formationes specific pote esser date antonymos in pro-; p.ex. retrocession = procession.

sub- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)
1. = sub, infra; p.ex. lingua -> sublingual [Anatomia];
nove formation: currente -> subcurrente;
2. = subordinate; subdivision de ...; p.ex. division -> subdivision;
nove formation: chef -> subchef: vicechef;
3. = un pauco, legier(mente); p.ex. bullir -> subbullir;
nove formation: inflammation [Medicina] -> subinflammation [Medicina];
Nota: Subjecte a assimilation ante -c, -f, -g, -m, -p, -r. Antonymo de super-.
 
 

super- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos)
1. = super, supra; p.ex. poner -> superponer; scarpa -> superscarpa;
nove formation: collar -> supercollar;
2. = multo; excessivemente, troppo de; p.ex. pagar -> superpagar;
nove formation: critic -> supercritic;
Nota: Antonymo de sub-.
 
 
 

trans- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) 1. = trans, ultra; superante; p.ex. portar -> transportar; Alpes -> transalpin; ration -> transrational;
nove formation: uranium -> transuranic; 2. = per, a tranverso de; p.ex. parer -> transparer;
nove formation: luminar -> transluminar;
Nota: In senso (1) synonymo de ultra-, in senso (2) de per-.
 
 
 

ultra- (in substantivos, adjectivos, e verbos) = extra, trans, ultra; p.ex. passar -> ultrapassar; violette -> ultraviolette;
nove formationes: micrometro -> ultramicrometro; stella -> ultrastellar;
Nota: Synonymo de per-.
 
 

vice- (in substantivos) = uno qui assume le position de ...; p.ex. rege -> vicerege;
nove formation: director -> vicedirector;


 
 

§ 157. II.A.a. -- The following GENERAL PREFIXES are used to modify nouns, adjectives, and/or verbs as indicated in every instance:

ad- (in verbs) 'to, toward, into' e.g. judicar 'to judge' > adjudicar 'to adjudge'; currer 'to run' > accurrer 'to come running'; costa 'coast' > accostar 'to accost';
new formations: rider 'to laugh' > arrider 'to laugh at'
Note: By extension of the meaning 'motion toward,' ad- expresses also 'change into,' 'increase of intensity,' etc. E.g. clar 'clear' > acclarar 'to make clearer, clarify.' --Subject to assimilation before consonants other than d, h, j, m, and v.

ante- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'preceding in time or space' e.g. camera 'room' > antecamera 'anteroom'; penultime 'penultimate' > antepenultime 'antepenultimate'; diluvio 'deluge' > antediluvian; poner 'to place' > anteponer 'to prepose';
new formations: eternitate 'eternity' > anteeternitate 'ante-eternity'; margine 'margin' > antemarginal [Bot.]; arar 'to plow' > antearar 'to plow before hand (preliminary to the real plowing)'
Note: Synonym of pre-. Antonym of post-.

anti- (in nouns and adjectives) 'opposed to, against; opposite' e.g. arctic > antarctic; papa 'Pope' > antipapa 'antipope';
new formations: idealista 'idealist' > antiidealista 'anti-idealist'; Freud > antifreudian 'anti-Freudian'
Note: The variant ant- (not in active use) appears before vowels and h, e.g. helminthe 'intestinal worm' > anthelminthic 'anthelmintic, vermifuge.' Antonym of pro-.

auto- (in nouns and adjectives) 'self' e.g. biographia 'biography' > autobiographia 'autobiography'; mobile 'mobile' > automobile 'self-propelling, automobile';
new formation: analyse 'analysis' > autoanalyse 'autoanalysis'
Note: The variant aut. (not in active use) appears before vowels, e.g. onym 'name' > autonymo 'autonym.'

circum- (in verbs and adjectives) 'about, around' e.g. navigar 'to navigate' > circumnavigar 'to circumnavigate'; polo 'pole' > circumpolar; vicin 'neighboring' > circumvicin 'circumjacent';
new formation: zenit 'zenith' > circumzenital [Meteorol.] 'circumzenithal'
Note: The variant circu- (not in active use) appears before i, e.g. ir 'to go' > circuir 'to go around, circuit.'

co- (in nouns and adjectives) 'joint, fellow' e.g. national > conational 'from the same country, conational'; hereditario 'heir' > cohereditario 'coheir';
new formations: naufrago 'shipwrecked person' > conaufrago 'fellow shipwrecked person'; ideal > coidealista 'adherent of the same ideal'
Note: Coincides with co-, a variant of con- used before vowels and h.

con- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'with, together, jointly, mutually' e.g. matre 'mother' > commatre 'godmother'; latere 'side' > collateral; temporanee 'temporal' > contemporanee 'contemporaneous, contemporary'; exister 'to exist' > coexister 'to coexist'; religion > correligionario 'co-religionist';
new formations: generic > congeneric; fixar 'to fix' > confixar 'to confix, fasten together'; partitario 'partisan, adherent of a party' > compartitario 'adherent of the same party'
Note: Appears as co- before h and vowels; col- before l; com- before b, m, p; cor- before r the variant co- coincides with the prefix co- above.

contra- (in nouns and verbs) 'against, opposing; counter or contrary to' e.g. balancia 'balance' > contrabalancia 'counterbalance'; dicer 'to say' > contradicer 'to contradict';
new formations: manifesto > contramanifesto 'countermanifesto'; fluer 'to flow' > contrafluer 'to counterflow'

dis- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)
1. 'apart, separately; divided, scattered' e.g. rumper 'to break' > disrumper 'to disrupt';
new formation: jacer 'to throw' > disjicer 'to scatter about';
2. 'not ..., contrary or opposite of' e.g. contente 'content, contented' > discontente 'discontent, discontented'; harmonia 'harmony' > disharmonia 'disharmony';
new formations: credentia 'belief' > discredentia 'disbelief'; acido 'acid' > disacidificar 'to disacidify'
Note: In sense (2) synonym of non- and in-.

ex- (in nouns) 'former' e.g. presiderite 'president' > ex-presidente 'ex-president';
new formation: convicto 'convict' > ex-convicto 'ex-convict'
Note: Preferably set off by hyphen.

extra-
1. (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'outside; outside the scope of' e.g. dorso 'back' > extradorso [Arch.] 'extrados'; muro 'wall' > extramural; vaso '(blood) vessel' > extravasar [Anat.] 'to extravasate';
new formation: lege 'law' > extralegal;
2. (in adjectives) 'highly, unusually, very' e.g. fin 'fine' > extrafin 'extra-fine, superfine';
new formation: longe 'long' > extralonge 'extra-long'
Note: In sense (1) antonym of intra-.

gran- (in names of kinship) 'grand-, great-' e.g. patre 'father' > granpatre 'grandfather'; amita 'aunt' > granamita 'great-aunt';
new formation: papa > granpapa 'grandpa'
Note: For further reduplication, the prefix pro- is available; e.g. 'great-great-aunt' progranamita.

in-
I. (in verbs) 'in, into,' e.g. ducer 'to lead' > inducer 'to induce';
new formation: capsula 'capsule' > incapsular 'to incapsulate, enclose a capsule'
Note: Appears as il- before l; im- before b, m, and p; ir- before r; expresses position in or upon, motion into, change into, etc. The synonym en- occurs in technical words, § 158.
II. (in nouns and adjectives) 'not...; lacking; lack of' e.g. action > inaction; regular > irregular;
new formation: disciplina 'discipline' > indisciplina 'indiscipline'
Note: Appears as i- before gn; il- before l; im- before b, m, p; ir- before r. Synonym of dis- and non-.

inter- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'between, among' e.g. linear 'to line' > interlinear 'to interline'; acto 'act of a play' > interacto 'entr'acte'; maxilla 'jawbone' > intermaxiliar 'intermaxillary';
new formation: racia 'race' > interracial

intra- (in adjectives) 'inside, within' e.g. venose 'venous' > intravenose 'intravenous';
new formation: pelvic > intrapelvic [Anat.]
Note: Antonym of extra-.
 

intro- (in verbs) 'inwards, to the inside' e.g. ducer 'to lead, conduct' > introducer 'to introduce';
new formation: suger 'to suck' > introsuger 'to suck in'
Note: Specific formations may be given antonyms in extro-; e.g. introversion; extroversion

mis- (in verbs) 'badly, wrongly' e.g. interpretar 'to interpret' > misinterpretar 'to misinterpret';
new formation: nominar 'to name' > misnominar 'to misname'

non- (in nouns and adjectives) 'not . .., lack or absence of' e.g. conformista 'conformist' > nonconformista 'nonconformist'; senso 'sense' > nonsenso 'nonsense';
new formations: cyclic > noncyclic; usage 'use, usage' > nonusage 'disuse'
Note: Synonym of dis- and in-.

per- (in verbs)
1. 'through, throughout' e.g. forar 'to drill, bore' > perforar 'to perforate';
new formation: vader 'to go' > pervader 'to pervade';
2. 'thoroughly; extremely, very' e.g. venir 'to come' > pervenir 'to arrive, succeed in arriving';
new formation: leger 'to read' > perleger 'to read thoroughly'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of trans-. Also used as a technical prefix with chemical nouns and adjectives. E.g. oxydo 'oxide (= compound containing oxygen)' peroxydo 'peroxide (= compound containing the maximum of oxygen);
new formation: boric > perboric.

post- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'behind, after in time, location, or order' e.g. poner 'to put, lay' > postponer 'to postpone, delay'; glacie 'ice' > postglacial;
new formations: pagar 'to pay' > postpagar 'to pay in arrears'; impressionista 'impressionist' > postimpressionista 'postimpressionist'
Note: Antonym of pre- (and ante-).

pre- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'before in time, position or rank' e.g. dominar 'to dominate' > predominar 'to predominate'; historia 'history' > prehistoria 'prehistory'; matur 'mature' > prematur 'premature';
new formations: gustar 'to taste; to enjoy' > pregustar 'to foretaste'; newtonian 'Newtonian' > prenewtonian 'pre-Newtonian'
Note: Synonym of ante-, antonym of post-.

pro-
1. (in nouns and adjectives) 'in favor of, on the side of' e.g. semita 'Semite' prosemitic 'pro-Semitic'; german 'German' > progerman 'pro-German'; 2. (in verbs) 'forward, forth'
e.g. longe 'long' > prolongar 'to prolong';
new formation: traher 'to draw, drag' > protraher 'to protract'
Note: In sense (1) antonym of anti-. For use in names of kinship, see gran above.

re- (in verbs)
1. 'back, backwards' e.g. flecter 'to bend' > reflecter 'to reflect';
new formation: lancear 'to hurl, fling' > relancear 'to fling back';
2. 'again' e.g. nove 'new' > renovar 'to renew';
new formation: colonisar 'to colonize' > recolonisar 'to recolonize'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of the more explicit retro-.

retro- (in verbs) 'back, backwards' e.g. ceder 'to cede' > retroceder 'to retrocede';
new formation: ducer 'to lead, conduct' > retroducer 'to lead back'
Note: Synonym of the less explicit re-. Specific formations may be given antonyms in pro-; e.g. retrocession: procession.

sub- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)
1. 'under, underneath' e.g. lingua 'tongue' sublingual [Anat.]
new formation: currente 'current' > subcurrente 'undercurrent';
2. 'subordinate; subdivision of' e.g. division > subdivision;
new formation: chef 'head, chief' > subchef 'subchief; assistant manager';
3. 'slightly, slight' e.g. bullir 'to boil' > subbullir 'to simmer';
new formation: inflammation [Med.] > subinflammation [Med.]
Note: Subject to assimilation before c, f, g, m, p, r. Antonym of super-.

super- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)
1. 'over, above' e.g. poner 'to place' > superponer 'to superimpose,' scarpa 'shoe' > superscarpa 'overshoe';
new formation: collar 'to paste' > supercollar 'to paste over';
2. 'very; excessively, too much' e.g. pagar 'to pay' > superpagar 'to overpay';
new formation: critic 'critical' > supercritic 'overcritical'
Note: Antonym of sub-.

trans- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs)
1. 'beyond, across; surpassing' e.g. portar 'to carry' > transportar 'to transport'; Alpes 'Alps' > transalpin 'transalpine'; ration 'reason' > transrational;
new formation: uranium > transuranic;
2. 'through, across' e.g. parer 'to appear' > transparer 'to show through';
new formation: luminar 'light' transluminar 'to shine through'
Note: In sense (1) synonym of ultra-, in sense (2) of per-.

ultra- (in nouns, adjectives, and verbs) 'beyond' e.g. passar 'to pass' > ultrapassar 'to go beyond'; violette 'violet' > ultraviolette 'ultraviolet';
new formations: micrometro 'micrometer' > ultramicrometro 'ultramicrometer'; stella 'star' > ultrastellar
Note: Synonym of per-.

vice- (in nouns) 'one who takes the place of' e.g. rege 'king' > vicerege 'viceroy';
new formation: director > vicedirector

-----------------------
II.A.b Prefixos technic
-----------------------

§158 Le prefixos technic sequente es usate pro modificar substantivos e adjectivos:

a- = non ..., sin, carente ...; p.ex. esthesia -> anesthesia; gnostic: referente a cognoscentia -> agnostic;
nove formation: nocive -> anocive;
Nota: Le variante an- appare ante -h e vocales. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic in- e non-.
 
 

amphi-
1. = ambe, a ambe lateres; p.ex. bio- -> amphibie;
2. = circa, circum; p.ex. theatro -> amphitheatro;
nove formation: nucleo -> amphinucleo [Biologia];

ana- = de novo, repetite; p.ex. baptismo -> anabaptismo;

nove formation: genese -> anagenese [Physiologia];
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic re-.

apo-
1. = via, a distantia le plus remote; p.ex. geo- -> apogee;
nove formation: trachea -> apotracheal;
2. [Chimia] = formate de, habente relation a ...; p.ex. morphina -> apomorphina;
nove formation: quinina -> apoquinina;

cata-
1. = a basso; p.ex. rhino- -> catarrhin [Zoologia];
nove formation: phyllo- -> cataphyllo [Botanica];
2. = contra; reflectite; p.ex. -optro- -> catoptric;
nove formation: acustica -> catacustica [Physica];
Nota: Le variante cat- appare ante -h e vocales.
 

dia-
1. = per, a transverso, de latere a latere, trans; p.ex. metro -> diametro;
nove formation: nodo -> dianodal [Mathematica];
2. = via, a parte; p.ex. stas-: (acto de) star -> diastase;
nove formation: magnetic -> diamagnetic;
Nota: Le variante di- appare ante vocales. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic trans- e per-.

dys- = mal, non (functionante) ben, defectuosemente, deficientemente; p.ex. pepsia -> dyspepsia;
nove formation: genese -> dysgenese: difficultate in reproduction;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic mis-.

ecto- = exterior, externe; p.ex. derma (in compositos) -> ectoderma [Zoologia];
nove formationes: cornea -> ectocornea; cranio -> ectocranial;
Nota: Le variante ect- appare ante vocales. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic extra-.
 

en- = in, a in; p.ex. demo [Antiquitate grec] -> endemia [Medicina];
nove formation: derma -> endermic [Medicina];
Nota: Le variante em- appare ante -b, -m, -p, -ph. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic in-.

endo- = interiormente, internemente, intra; p.ex. gamo- -> endogame: osmose -> endosmose;
nove formation: phag- -> endophage: mangiante co-membros de tribo;
Nota: Le variante end- appare ante vocales.
 

ento- = intra, al interior de; p.ex. -zoon -> entozoon: parasito intestinal;
nove formation: ot- -> entotic: pertinente al interior del aure;
Nota: Le variante ent- appare ante vocales.

epi- = super, supra; p.ex. -tapho- -> epitaphio;
nove formation: gastro: abdomine, stomacho -> epigastric;
Nota: Le variante ep- appare ante -h e vocales.
 
 

exo- = extra, al exterior de; p.ex. gamo- -> exogame; osmose -> exosmose;
nove formation: phag- -> exophage: practicante cannibalismo foras le tribo;
Nota: Le variante ex- appare ante vocales.
 
 

hyper- = super, supra, trans; ultra; troppo; p.ex. critic -> hypercritic; tension -> hypertension;
nove formation: dimension -> hyperdimensional;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic super-.

hypo-
1. = in basso, sub, infra; p.ex. derma -> hypodermatic;
nove formation: carpo- -> hypocarpio;
2. = a un grado plus basse, reducite; aliquanto; p.ex. troph- -> hypotrophia;
nove formation: esthesia -> hypoesthesia;
3. [Chimia] = indicante un grado plus basse de oxydation, o un position plus basse in un serie de compositos; p.ex. phosphato -> hypophosphato;
nove formation: acide -> hypoacide;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic sub-.
 
 
 

meta-
1. = post; p.ex. carpo [Anatomia] -> metacarpo [Anatomia];
nove formation: branchia [Zoologia] -> metabranchial;
2. = ultra, transcendente, plus alte; p.ex. physica -> metaphysica;
nove formation: mathematica -> metamathematica;
3. = depost, subsequente a; p.ex. zoon -> metazoon;
nove formation: arthritis -> metaarthritic;
4. [Chimia] = designante compositos derivate, metameric o similar; p.ex. globulina [Biochimia] -> metaglobulina;
nove formation: gelatina -> metagelatina;
Nota: Le variante met- appare ante vocales e -h. Cf. le synonymos nontechnic trans- e ultra-.
 
 

para-
1. = al latere de, preter; p.ex. site- -> parasite;
nove formation: centro -> paracentral;
2. = mal, defective, false; p.ex. -dox- -> paradoxe;
nove formation: -phem- -> paraphemia;
3. = resimilante; modification de ...; p.ex. typhoide -> paratyphoide;
nove formation: physic -> paraphysic;
Nota: Le variante par- appare ante vocales e -h.
 
 

peri- = circa, circum; p.ex. metro -> perimetro;
nove formation: arteria -> periarterial;
Nota: Cf. le synonymo nontechnic circum-.
 

syn- = con, insimul; similar; p.ex. logos -> syllogisar; phon-: voce, sono -> symphone;
nove formation: chrono- -> synchrone; dactyl- -> syndactyle [Zoologia, Medicina];
Nota: Appare como syl- ante -l; sym- ante -b, -m, -p, -ph. Cf. le synonymo nontechnic con-.


 
 

§ 158. II.A.b.- The following technical prefixes are used to modify nouns and adjectives:

a- 'not...; without . .., lacking ...' e.g. esthesia > anesthesia; gnostic 'relating to knowledge' > agnostic;
new formation: nocive 'harmful' > anocive 'innoxious'
Note: The variant an- appears before h and vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms in- and non-.

amphi-
1. 'both, on both sides' e.g. bio- 'life' > amphibie 'amphibious';
2. 'around, about' e.g. theatro 'theater' > amphitheatro 'amphitheater';
new formation: nucleo 'nucleus' > amphinucleo [Biol.] 'amphinucleus'

ana- 'again' e.g. baptismo 'baptism' > anabaptismo 'anabaptism';

new formation: genese 'genesis' > anagenese [Physiol.] 'anagenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym re-.

apo- 1. 'off, away' e.g. geo- 'earth' > apogee 'apogean';
new formation: trachea 'windpipe' > apotracheal;
2. [Chem.] 'formed from, related to' e.g. morphina 'morphine' > apomorphina 'apomorphine';
new formation: quinina 'quinine' > apoquinina 'apoquinine'

cata-
1. 'down, downwards' e.g. rhino- 'nose' > catarrhin [Zool.] 'catarrhine';
new formation: phyllo- 'leaf' > cataphyllo [Bot.] 'cataphyll';
2. 'against; reflected' e.g. -optro- > catoptric;
new formation: acustica 'acoustics' > catacustica [Phys.] 'catacoustics'
Note: The variant cat- appears before h and vowels.

dia-
1. 'through' e.g. metro 'measure' > diametro 'diameter';
new formation: nodo 'knot' > dianodal [Math.];
2. 'away, apart' e.g. stas- '(act of) standing' > diastase 'diastasis';
new formation: magnetic > diamagnetic
Note: The variant di- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and per-.

dys- 'bad, badly, not well' e.g. pepsia 'digestion' > dyspepsia;
new formation: genese 'genesis' > dysgenese 'difficulty in breeding, dysgenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym mis-.
 

ecto- 'outside, external' e.g. derma (in compounds) 'skin' > ectoderma [Zool.] 'ectoderm';
new formations: cornea 'cornea' > ectocornea; cranio 'cranium' > ectocranial
Note: The variant ect- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonym extra-.

en- 'in, into' e.g. demo [Gr. Antiq.] 'demos' > endemia [Med.] 'endemic';
new formation: derma > endermic [Med.]
Note: The variant em- appears before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym in-.

endo- 'within' e.g. gamo- 'marriage' > endogame 'endogamous'; osmose 'osmosis' > endosmose 'endosmosis';
new formation: phag- 'to eat' > endophage 'endophagous, eating fellow-tribesmen'
Note: The variant end- appears before vowels.

ento- 'within, inside' e.g. -zoon 'animal' > entozoon 'entozoen, intestinal parasite';
new formation: ot- 'ear' > entotic, 'entotic, pertaining to the interior of the ear'
Note: The variant ent- appears before vowels.

epi- 'on, upon' e.g. -tapho- 'tomb' > epitaphio 'epitaph';
new formation: gastro 'abdomen, stomach' > epigastric
Note: The variant ep- appears before h and vowels.

exo- 'without, outside' e.g. gamo- 'marriage' > exogame 'exogamous'; osmose 'osmosis' > exosmose 'exosmosis';
new formation: phag- 'to eat' > exophage 'exophagous, practicing cannibalism outside the tribe'
Note: The variant ex- appears before vowels.

hyper- 'over; beyond; too much' e.g. critic 'critical' > hypercritic 'hypercritical'; tension > hypertension;
new formation: dimension > hyperdimensional
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym super-.

hypo-
1. 'below, beneath, under' e.g. derma > hypodermatic 'hypodermic';
new formation: carpo- 'fruit' > hypocarpio 'hypocarp';
2. 'to a lower degree; somewhat' e.g. troph- 'nourishment' > hypotrophia 'hypotrophy';
new formation: esthesia > hypoesthesia;
3. [Chem.] 'indicating a lower state of oxidation, or a lower position in a series of compounds' e.g. phosphato 'phosphate' > hypophosphato 'hypophosphate';
new formation: acide 'acid' > hypoacide 'hypeacid'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym sub-.

meta-
1. 'behind' e.g. carpo [Anat.] 'wrist, carpus' > metacarpo [Anat.] 'metacarpus';
new formation: branchia [Zool.] 'gill, branchia' > metabranchial;
2. 'beyond, transcending, higher' e.g. physica 'physics' > metaphysica 'metaphysics';
new formation: mathematica 'mathematics' > metamathematica 'metamathematics';
3. 'after, subsequent to' e.g. zoon > metazoon;
new formation: arthritis > metaarthritic;
4. [Chem.] 'designating derived, metameric or similar compounds' e.g. globulina [Biochem.] 'globulin' > metaglobulina 'metaglobulin';
new formation: gelatina 'gelatin' > metagelatina 'metagelatin'
Note: The variant met- appears before vowels and h. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and ultra-.

para-
1. 'besides, alongside' e.g. site- 'food' > parasite 'parasitic';
new formation: centro 'center' > paracentral;
2. 'amiss, faulty, wrong' e.g. -dox- 'opinion' > paradoxe 'paradoxical';
new formation: -phem- 'voice' > paraphemia;
3. 'resembling; modification of' e.g. typhoide 'typhoid' > paratyphoide 'paratyphoid';
new formation: physic 'physical' > paraphysic 'paraphysical'
Note: The variant par- appears before vowels and h.

peri- 'around, about' e.g. metro 'measure' > perimetro 'perimeter';
new formation: arteria 'artery' > periarterial
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym circum-.

syn- 'with, together; alike' e.g. logos 'logos' > syllogisar 'to syllogize'; chrono- 'time' > synchrone 'synchronous'; phon- 'voice, sound' > symphone 'symphonicus';
new formation: dactyl- 'finger' > syndactyle [Zool., Med.] 'syndactyl'
Note: Appears as syl- before l; sym- before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym con-.

------------------------------------
II.B Composition per medio de formas
compositori
------------------------------------

§159 Compositos que resulta del COMBINATION DE DUO VOCABULOS COMPLETE es formate o per juxtaposition simple - como illustrate per anglese {teapot}, {thunderstorm}, {goose flesh}, etc. - o involve le uso de un tracto compositori - p.ex. {cylindr-o-cellular}, {man-i-cure}, etc. Interlingua manca del illimitate possibilitate de composition active per juxtaposition simple que es characteristic (ben que non un tracto distinctive) del linguas germanic. Inter le expedientes expressive disponibile in Interlingua como complementos de su systema de composition, le sequentes es a notar:

(a) Compositos anglese sovente corresponde a formationes de suffixo in Interlingua (-ero/-era, -iero/-iera, -eria, ...):


 
 
 

§ 159. II.B. -- Compounds which result from the COMBINATION OF TWO FULL-FLEDGED WORDS are formed either by simple juxtaposition -- as illustrated by English 'teapot,' 'thunderstorm,' 'goose flesh,' etc. -- or involve the use of a compounding feature -- e.g. 'cylindr-o-cellular,' 'man-i-cure,' etc. Interlingua lacks the unlimited possibility of active compounding by simple juxtaposition which is characteristic (although not a distinctive feature) of the Teutonic languages. Among the expressive devices available in Interlingua as complements of its compounding system, the following are to be noted:

(a) English compounds often correspond to Interlingua suffix formations.

                                        lactero:     milkman
                                        lactera:     milkmaid
                                        lacteria:    (milk shop) dairy
                                        risiera:     rice field
                                        porchero:    swineherd
                                        porchiera:   pigsty
                                        porcheria:   pork shop
                                        pruniero:    plum tree
                                        frambesiero: raspberry bush
(b) Compositos anglese corresponde multo frequentemente a expressiones prepositional in Interlingua. Le selection del preposition permitte sovente un clar exposition del relation inter le elementos que in anglese es lassate al contexto e senso commun; p.ex. in le anglese le parolas {sea-man} e {milkman} in se non nos dice que le secunde non naviga super le lacte e que le prime non vende aqua de mar. (b) English compounds correspond very frequently to Interlingua prepositional phrases. The choice of the preposition permits often a clear statement of the relationship between the elements which in English is left to context and common sense. E.g.: it is not the words 'seaman' and 'milkman' which tell us that the latter does not sail on milk and that the former does not sell sea water.
                                   ~ de ~
                                   ------
                                   station de omnibus: bus station
                                   libro de cassa: cashbook
                                   musica de camera: chamber music

                                   ~ a ~
                                   -----
                                   tractor a erucas: caterpillar tractor
                                   sala a attender: waiting room
                                   sacco a mano: handbag
(c) In numerose casos, compositos anglese es rendite le melio in Interlingua per substantivos modificate per adjectivos. (c) In numerous instances English compounds are best rendered in Interlingua by nouns modified by adjectives.
                                     ~ ~(adj)
                                     --------
                                     lumine solar   : sunlight
                                     sacco lacrimal : tearpit
                                     pelle rubie    : redskin
                                     vaso sanguinari: blood vessel

§160 Composition active in Interlingua es ligate a, sed completemente libere intra le limites de, patronos analoge. Isto significa que - a parte de formas compositori que functiona como affixos virtual (vide §§161, 164 infra) - le elementos a junger in un nove composito debe cata uno occurrer in un o plure compositos traditional le quales servi a monstrar sub qual forma le parolas separate entra in le composito. Nota que le majoritate de compositos es ligate per un vocal como tracto compositori. Iste vocal dispare generalmente quando le prime sono del secunde elemento es de novo un vocal. Le vocal compositori es sovente sed non necessarimente le desinentia normal del prime elemento quando usate como un parola independente. In le grande majoritate del compositos le ligamine vocal es -o o -i.

In le exemplos sequente, composition active es illustrate secundo le patrono del equation: composito traditional-A e composito traditional-B permitte le formation del nove composito-C. - Nota: Alicunes del compositos date como nove formationes in Interlingua pote naturalmente exister in le vocabulario de un o altere lingua ethnic.

§ 160. Active compounding in Interlingua is bound to, but completely free within the limits of, analogical patterns. This means that -- apart from compounding forms which function as virtual affixes (see §§ 161, 164 below) -- the elements to be joined in a new compound must each occur in one or several traditional compounds which serve to show under what form the separate words enter into the compound. Note that most compounds are linked by a vowel compounding feature. This disappears generally when the first sound of the second element is again a vowel. The compounding vowel is often but not necessarily the normal ending of the first element when used as an independent word. In the great majority of compounds the vowel link is o or i.
 

In the following examples active compounding is illustrated within the pattern of the equation: traditional compound A and traditional compound B permit the formation of the new compound C. -- Note: Some of the compounds given as new Interlingua formations may naturally exist in the vocabulary of one or another ethnic language.

       A                B                 C           Interlingua                English
  hepat-ologia    appendic-ectomia  hepatectomia:  excision del hepate      removal of the liver
  cyano-typo      claustro-phobia   cyanophobia:   timor del color blau     fear of the color blue
  scia-machia     necro-mantia      sciamantia:    prophetia per umbras     prophecy by shadows
  gene-alogo      idol-atria        genealatria:   adoration de descendita  worship of descent
  ligni-cole      agri-cultura      lignicultura:  cultivation de ligno     cultivation of wood
  pseudo-classic  micro-cosmic      pseudocosmic:  pseudocosmic             pseudocosmic

§161 Un numero considerabile de vocabulos occurre si frequentemente in compositos que lor formas compositori (insimul con le vocal compositori si illo existe) differe pauco de un prefixo o un suffixo. Illos que es a usar liberemente in qualcunque combination de senso con un altere elemento (que pote sed non necessarimente debe occurrer in compositos traditional) es listate infra, e es sequite per un o plure exemplos traditional e nove formationes. Illos se monstrara specialmente utile pro varie requirimentos scientific e technic. Cf. etiam §164 infra.

------------------------------
a) Prime elementos o prefixos:
------------------------------

aero-
(forma combinante de aere); p.ex.
aeronave: nave aeree;
aerodynamic;
aerostatica: statica de aere;
nove formationes:
aeropression: pression de aere;
aerophobia;
aerotherapia: therapia per aere;
aerotransporto: transporto aeree;
- 98 -

archi-
= principal, in chef, eminente; p.ex.
archiepiscopo: episcopo principal;
nove formationes:
archidarwinista;
archilegal: legal sin le minime dubita;


electro-
(forma combinante de electric, electricitate,
etc.); p.ex.
electromotor;
electrotherapia: therapia per electricitate;
nove formationes:
electropropulsion: propulsion per
electricitate;
electropiano: piano electric;


equi-
(forma combinante de eque con le
signification de equal) = equal, equalmente;
p.ex.
equilateral;
equivaler: esser equivalente;
nove formationes:
equicurvate: habente duo curvas equal;
equisonantia: modo identic de sonar;

hetero-
= altere, differente; p.ex.
heterosexual;
nove formation:
heteroracial: de racias differente;

homo-
(ante vocales hom-)
= mesme, similar; p.ex.
homologe;
homocentric;
nove formationes:
homolithic: consistente del mesme petra;
homopersonal: consistente de un e le mesme
persona;

homeo-
(ante vocales home-)
= simile, similar; p.ex.
homeopathic;
nove formationes:
homeolithic: consistente de petras similar;
homeoracial: de racias similar;
- 99 -

hydro-
= aqua; p.ex.
hydroelectric;
hydrocephalo;
nove formationes:
hydrosaturate: saturate per aqua;
hydrochimia: chimia del aqua;

iso-
(synonymo de equi-)
= equal, uniforme, similar; p.ex.
isometric;
isodynamic;
nove formationes:
isoradial: habente radios equal;
isoglotte: parlante le mesme lingua;

macro-
(sovente contrastate con micro-)
= longe, grande; p.ex.
macroscopic;
macroseismo: seismo major;
nove formationes:
macroorganismo: grande organismo (visibile
per le oculos nude);
macropetale: habente petalos grande;

micro-
(sovente contrastate con macro-)
= parve; microscopic; p.ex.
microcosmo;
microcephale: habente un cranio parve;
nove formationes:
microcellular: de cellulas microscopic;
microphono;

neo-
= nove, moderne; p.ex.
neolatin;
neonato: baby justo nascite;
nove formationes:
neoromantic;
neo-jeffersonismo;
- 100 -

omni-
(forma combinante de omne)
= omne, tote, cata; p.ex.
omnivore: mangiante qualcunque cosa;
omnipotente;
nove formationes:
omniaudiente: audiente toto;
omniprotector: protector de toto;

paleo-
(sovente contrastate con neo-)
= vetule, ancian; p.ex.
paleozoic;
nove formationes:
paleohistoria: historia ancian;
paleoindoeuropee: indo-europee primitive;

pan-
= includente toto; p.ex.
panamerican;
nove formationes:
pandualismo: dualismo universal;
panarchia: governamento [regno] universal;

photo-
1. = lumine;
2. = photographia; p.ex.
photographia;
nove formationes:
photoanalyse: analyse de o per lumine;
photosculptura: sculptura per medio de
photographias;

proto-
= prime, primitive, prototypic; p.ex.
prototypo;
nove formationes:
protoanimal;
protoreligion: prototypo de religion;

pseudo-
= false, apparentemente similar, pretendite;
p.ex.
pseudoclassic;
nove formationes:
pseudohuman;
pseudotolerantia: false apparentia de
tolerantia;
- 101 -

quasi-
= quasi, a un certe grado, simile a; p.ex.
quasi-delicto;
nove formationes:
quasi-ver;
quasi-confidentia;

radio-
1. = de radios o radiation; radioactive
2. = (receptor de) radio; p.ex.
radiographia;
radiodiffunder: transmitter;
nove formationes:
radiotheoria: theoria de radiation;
radiopropaganda: publicitate per radio;

tele-
= lontan, distante; p.ex.
telescopio;
television;
nove formationes:
telediffunder: transmitter a distantia;
teleanalyse: analyse a distantia;

--------------------------------
b) Secunde elementos o suffixos:
--------------------------------
Nota: Le vocales initial indicate in le forma infra es le norma. In combinationes con prime elementos que ha un patrono establite de composition, le vocal normal pote disparer o esser reimplaciate per un altere;
p.ex.
tele- (le qual entra in compositos sin un vocal de composition) + -ometro -> telemetro.

-icida
= occisor; p.ex.
matricida: occisor de su matre;
nove formationes:
bufonicida: occisor de bufon;
draconicida: occisor de dracon;

-icidio
= occision; p.ex.
matricidio: occision de su proprie matre;
nove formationes:
odoricidio: occision de odores;
hippicidio: occision de cavallos;

-omane
= demente, folle, maniac; p.ex.
megalomane (adj);
nove formationes:
alcoholomane: appetente le alcohol;
telephonomane: qui depende dementemente del
uso del telephone;
Nota: Le derivatos -omano [un homine assi
afflicte], -omana [un femina assi afflicte], e
-omania [le affliction ipse] pote





-ometro
= instrumento de mesura; p.ex. serometro;
nove formationes:
crystallometro;
cardiometro;

-ographo
1. = instrumento que scribe o registra;
2. = persona qui registra; p.ex.
seismographo;
biographo;
nove formationes:
heliographo;
fluxographo: instrumento que mesura quantitate
o velocitate del fluxo;
Nota: Le derivato -ographia [systema o
technica de registration] pote equalmente
esser usate como un suffixo.

-ologo
= persona experte o specialisate in ...; p.ex.
graphologo;
nove formationes:
petroleologo: experto in petroleo;
scientiologo: studente del organisation del
scientias;
Nota: Le derivato -ologia [scientia] pote
equalmente esser usate como un suffixo.
-103-

-ophile
(sovente contrastate con -ophobe)
= qui ama ..., qui es affectionate de ...;
p.ex.
bibliophile (adj);
nove formationes:
heliophile: qui affectiona le sol;
palestinophile;
Nota: 
Le derivatos -ophilo [un homine assi
characterisate], -ophila [un femina assi
characterisate], e -ophilia [le
tendentia ipse] pote equalmente esser usate
como suffixos.

-ophobe
(sovente contrastate con -ophile)
= qui time, non ama, o ha aversion a ...; 
p.ex.
anglophobe;
nove formation:
hispanophobe;
Nota: Le derivatos -ophobo [un homine assi
characterisate], -ophoba [un femina assi
characterisate], e -ophobia [le tendentia
ipse] pote equalmente esser usate como
suffixos.

-oscopo
= scientista qui examina ...; p.ex.
cranioscopo;
nove formation:
röntgenoscopo: examinator de radios Röntgen;
Nota: 
Le derivatos 
-oscopio [le instrumento que servi le -oscopo], 
-oscopia [le campo del studio], e 
-oscopic [pertinente al studio] pote equalmente 
esser usate como suffixos.


§162 Concernente numerales composite, cf. §119
supra; concernente numerales como elementos 
de composition §128.
§ 161. A considerable number of words occur so frequently in compounds that their compounding form (together with the compounding vowel if any) differs little from a prefix or suffix. Those to be used freely in any meaningful combination with another element (which may but need not occur in traditional compounds) are listed below followed by one or several traditional examples and new formations. They will prove especially useful for various scientific and technical requirements. Cf. also § 164 below.
 
 

a) First elements or prefixes


aero- (combining form of acre 'air'),
e.g.
aeronave 'airship,'
aerodynamic, aerostatica 'aerostatics';
new formations:
aeropression 'air pressure,'
aerophobia, aerotherapia 'aerotherapy,'
aerotransporto 'air transport'




archi- ('arch-, archi-'),
e.g.
archiepiscopo 'archbishop';
new formations:
archidarwinista 'arch-Darwinist',
archilegal 'archlegal, legal beyond the
shadow of a doubt'

electro- (combining form of electric,
electricitate, etc.
'electric, electricity, etc.'),
e.g.
electromotor, electrotherapia
'electrotherapy';
new formations:
electropropulsion 'propulsion by
electricity,'
electropiano 'electric piano'

equi- (combining form of eque with the
meaning of equal 'equal, equally'),
e.g.
equilateral,
equivaler 'to be equivalent';
new formations:
equicurvate 'having two equal curves,'
equisonantia 'equal sounding'


hetero- ('other, different'),
e.g. heterosexual;
new formation:
heteroracial 'of different races'


homo- (before vowels hom-; 'same'),
e.g.
homologe 'homologous,'
homocentric;
new formations:
homolithic 'consisting of the same stone,'
homopersonal 'having one person'



homeo- (before vowels home-; 'like,
similar'),
e.g.
homeopathic;
new formations:
homeolithic 'consisting of similar stone,'
homeoracial 'of similar races'


hydro- ('water'),
e.g.
hydroelectric, hydrocephalo 'hydrocephalus';
new formations:
hydrosaturate 'water-saturated,'
hydrochimia 'chemistry of water'


iso- (synonym of equi-; 'equal'),
e.g.
isometric, isodynamic;
new formations:
isoradial 'having equal radii,'
isoglotte 'speaking the same language'



macro- ('long, large,' often contrasted with
micro-),
e.g.
macroscopic, macroseismo 'major earthquake';
new formations:
macroorganismo 'large organism (visible to the
naked eye),'
macropetale 'large-petaled'


micro- ('small; microscopic,' often contrasted
with macro-),
e.g.
microcosmo 'microcosm,'
microcephale 'small-skulled';
new formations:
microcellular 'of microscopic cells,'
microphono 'microphone'

neo- ('new, modern'),
e.g.
neolatin, neonato 'new-born baby';
new formations:
neoromantic,
neo-jeffersonismo 'neo-Jeffersonianism'



omni- (combining form of omne 'all, every'),
e.g.
omnivore 'eating anything,'
omnipotente 'onmipotent';
new formations:
omniaudiente 'hearing everything,'
omniprotector 'all-protector'


paleo- ('old, ancient'; often contrasted with
neo-),
e.g.
paleozoic;
new formations:
paleohistoria 'early history,'
paleoindoeuropean 'primitive Indo-European'

pan- ('including all'),
e.g.
panamerican 'Pan-American';
new formations:
pandualismo 'universal dualism,'
panarchia 'universal rule'

photo- (1. 'light'; 2. 'photography'),
e.g.
photographia 'photography';
new formations:
photoanalyse 'analysis of or by means of
light';
photosculptura 'photosculpture'


proto- ('first, primitive, prototypal'),
e.g.
prototypo 'prototype';
new formations:
protoanimal,
protoreligion 'prototype of religion'

pseudo- ('pseudo-'),
e.g.
pseudoclassic;
new formations:
pseudohuman 'pseudohuman(e),'
pseudotolerantia 'pseudotolerance'




quasi- ('quasi-'),
e.g.
quasi-delicto 'quasi delict';
new formations:
quasi-ver 'quasi true,'
quasi-confidentia 'quasi trust'

radio- (1. 'ray'; 2. 'radio'),
e.g.
radiographia 'x-ray photography';
radiodiffunder 'to broadcast';
new formations:
radiotheoria 'ray theory';
radiopropaganda 'radio publicity'


tele- ('far off'),
e.g.
telescopio 'telescope,'
television;
new formations:
telediffunder 'to broadcast long-distance,'
teleanalyse 'analysis at a distance'

b) Second elements or suffixes.

Note: The initial vowels indicated in the form below are the norm. In combinations with first elements which have an established compounding pattern, the normal vowel may disappear or be replaced by another. E.g. tele- (which enters into compounds without a compounding vowel) plus -ometro would yield telemetro.


-icida ('killer'),
e.g.
matricida 'killer of his mother';
new formations:
bufonicida 'toad killer,'
draconicida 'dragon killer'

-icidio ('killing'),
e.g.
matricidio 'killing of one's mother';
new formations:
odoricidio 'killing of odors,'
hippicidio 'killing of horses'


-omane ('mad'),
e.g.
megalomane 'megalomaniac (adj.)';
new formations:
alcoholomane 'alcohol-craving,'
telephonomane 'madly addicted to the use of
the telephone.'
Note:
The derivatives
-omano 'a man thus afflicted,'
-omana 'a woman thus afflicted,' and
-omania 'the affliction itself'
may likewise be used as suffixes.

-ometro ('measuring instrument'),
e.g.
serometro 'serometer';
new formations:
crystallometro 'crystallometer,'
cardiometro 'cardiometer'

-ographo 
(1. 'instrument that writes or records';
2. '-grapher'), e.g.
seismographo 'seismograph,'
biographo 'biographer';
new formations:
heliographo 'heliograph,'
fluxographo 'instrument measuring quantity or
speed of flow.'
Note:
The derivative -ographia 'system or technique 
of recording' may likewise be used as a 
suffix.

-ologo ('-ologue, -ologer, -ologist'), e.g.
graphologo 'graphologist';
new formations:
petroleologo 'oil expert';
scientiologo 'student of the organization of
the sciences.'
Note:
The derivative
-ologia 'science'
may likewise be used as a suffix.


-ophile ('loving, fond of'; often contrasted
with -ophobe),
e.g.
bibliophile (adj.);
new formations:
heliophile 'fond of the sun,'
palestinophile 'Palestinophile.'
Note:
The derivatives
-ophilo 'a man thus characterized,'
-ophila 'a woman thus characterized,' and
-ophilia 'the tendency itself'
may likewise be used as suffixes.

-ophobe ('fearing, disliking'; often
contrasted with -ophile),
e.g.
anglophobe;
new formation:
hispanophobe 'Hispanophobe.'
Note:
The derivatives
-ophobo 'a man thus characterized,'
-ophoba 'a woman thus characterized,' and
-ophobia 'the tendency itself'
may likewise be used as suffixes.

-oscopo ('-oscopist'),
e.g.
cranioscopo 'cranioscopist';
new formation:
röntgenoscopo 'x-ray examiner.'
Note:
The derivatives
-oscopio 'the instrument serving the
-oscopist,'
-oscopia 'the field of study,' and
-oscopic 'pertaining to the study'
may likewise be used as suffixes.
§ 162. On compound numerals, cf. § 119 above; on numerals as compounding elements § 128.

------------------------
III Derivation composite
------------------------

§163 COMPOSITION per prefixos como etiam per le combination de parolas complete es sovente complite IN CONJUNCTION CON DERIVATION per affixos. (Cf. §155 supra.) Un formation como infiltrar non es, parlante strictemente, un composito de 'in' plus 'filtrar', sed un derivato composite de 'in' plus 'filtro' per medio del suffixo verbal -ar. Similarmente heliocentric non es un derivato de 'heliocentro' (que non existe), sed de helio- plus 'centro' per le suffixo adjectival -ic. Additional exemplos fortuite es:


 
 

§ 163. III. -- COMPOUNDING by prefixes as well as by the combination of full-fledged words is often carried out IN CONJUNCTION WITH DERIVATION by affixes. (Cf. § 155 above.) A formation like infiltrar 'to infiltrate' is not, strictly speaking, a compound of in plus filtrar but a compound derivative from in plus filtro 'filter' by means of the verbal suffix -ar. Similarly heliocentric is not a derivative from *heliocentro (which does not exist) but from helio- plus centro by means of the adjectival suffix ic. Further random examples are:

                         semi-   cupa       semicupio:      sitz bath (banio con un sede)
                         uni-    latere     unilateral
                         re-     fresc      refrescar:      to refresh
                         ad-     commode    accommodar:     to accommodate
§164 Un numero de substantivos e verbos rende adjectivos per un processo de derivation compositori in le qual le suffixo es le desinentia adjectival simple (-e o nihil). Exemplos es: § 164. A number of nouns and verbs yield adjectives by a process of compounding derivation in which the suffix is the simple adjectival ending (-e or nothing). Examples are:
                    ~      subst.   adjectivo
                           ------   ------------
                    late   collo    laticolle     habente collo grosse
                    albe   flor     albiflor      habente flores blanc
                    cruce  forma    cruciforme    habente forma de cruce
                    multe  latere   multilatere   habente multe lateres
                    mixte  linea    mixtilinee    habente lineas mixte
                    crasse lingua   crassilingue  habente lingua crasse
                    omne   modo     omnimode      multiplice
                    sol    pede     solipede      habente un sol pede
                    tres   remo     trireme       habente tres remos
                    hamo   rostro   hamirostre    habente rostro como hamo
                    unda   sono     undisone      con sono undeante
                    poly-  syllabo  polysyllabe   con multe syllabas
                    
                    vino   coler    vinicole      cultivante vino
                    melle  fluer    melliflue     fluente como melle
                    saxo   franger  saxifrage     frangente petras; que frange petras
                    verme  fugir    vermifuge     que face vermes fugir
                    ventre loquer   ventriloque   parlante per le ventre
                    vive   parer    vivipare      que parturi [produce] prole vive
                    igne   vomir    ignivome      vomiente igne
                    carne  vorar    carnivore     que mangia carne
                    etc.

collo 'neck' added to late 'wide' yields laticolle 'thick-necked' flor 'flower' added to albe 'white' yelds albiflor 'white-flowered' forms 'form' added to cruce 'cross' yields cruciforme 'cross-shaped' latere 'side' added to multe 'many' yields multilatere 'many-sided' lines 'line' added to mixte 'mixed' yields mixtilinee 'mixtilinear' lingua 'tongue' added to crasse 'fat' yields crassilingue 'thick-tongued' modo 'mode' added to omne 'all' yields omnimode 'multifarious' pede 'foot' added to sol 'alone' yields solipede 'one-footed' remo 'oar' added to tres 'three' yields trireme 'three-oared' rostro 'beak' added to hamo 'hook' yields hamirostre 'hamirostrate' sono 'sound' added to unda 'wave' yields undisone 'wavelike (in sound)' syllabo 'syllable' added to poly- 'many' yields polysyllabe 'polysyllabic' coler 'to cultivate' added to vino 'wine' yields vinicole 'wine-growing' fluer 'to flow' added to melle 'honey' yields melliflue 'mellifluous' franger 'to break' added to saxo 'rock' yields saxifrage 'saxifragous' fugir 'to flee' added to verme 'worm' yields vermifuge 'vermifuge' loquer 'to talk' added to ventre 'belly' yields ventriloque 'ventriloquous' pater 'to bear, give birth to' added to vive 'alive' yields vivipare 'viviparous' vomir 'to vomit' added to igne 'fire' yields ignivome 'vomiting fire' vorar 'to devour' added to carne 'meat' yields carnivore 'carnivorous' etc.
Cata uno de iste formationes pote servir como le modello pro formationes additional que involve le mesme secunde elemento. Iste secunde elemento pote esser reguardate e usate como un suffixo.

Le vocal compositori es considerate parte del suffixo como illustrate in le exemplos sequente:

Any one of these formations can serve as the model for further formations involving the same second element. This second element may be regarded and used as a suffix.

The compounding vowel is to be considered part of it as illustrated in the following examples:

-iforme   gambiforme     formate como un gamba
                                   milliforme     de un mille formas
                         -ilingue  acutilingue    habente un lingua acute; 
                                                  de humor mordace
                                   lentilingue    parlante lentemente
                         -ipede    cervipede      habente pedes como un cervo    
                                   unipede        habente un sol pede
                         -isone    americanisone  sonante como un americano
                                   tonitrisone    sonante como tonitro
                         -icole    pinicole       cultivante pinos    
                                   capillicole    cultivante capillos
                         -iloque   multiloque     parlante multo
                                   folliloque     parlante como un folle
                         -ipare    bufonipare     parturiente bufones
                                   ignipare       producente igne
                         -ivome    injuriivome    sputante insultos
                                   aurivome       sputante auro
                         etc.

-iforme : gambiforme 'leg-shaped' ; milliforme 'of a thousand shapes' -ilingue: acutilingue 'sharp-tongued' ; lentilingue 'slow-tongued' -ipede : cervipede 'deer-footed' ; unipede 'one-footed' -isone : americanisone 'American-sounding tonitrisone 'sounding like thunder' -icole : pinicole 'pine-growing' ; capillicole 'hair-growing' -iloque : multiloque 'talking much' ; folliloque 'talking like a madman' -ipare : bufonipare 'giving birth to toads' ; ignipare 'fire-bearing' -ivome : injuriivome 'spitting insults' ; aurivome 'spitting gold' etc.

Nota: Suffixos de iste sorta es formas compositori de substantivos e verbos correspondente. In tanto que tal substantivos e verbos ha lor proprie derivatos, istes pote equalmente esser usate in nove formationes parallel al typo illustrate supra. P.ex., proque -icole veni del verbo 'coler' e proque 'coler' ha derivatos como 'cultor', 'cultura', etc., il es possibile formar parallel a omne formationes in -icole alteres in -icultor, -icultura, etc.

In consequentia formationes libere como


Note: Suffixes of this kind are compounding forms of corresponding nouns and verbs. In so far as such nouns and verbs have derivatives of their own, these may likewise be used in new formations parallel to the type illustrated above. E.g., as -icole comes from the verb coler and as coler has derivatives like cultor, cultura, etc., it is possible to form parallel to all formations in -icole others in -icultor, -icultura, etc.

Hence free formations like

                                             acutilingual,
                                             tonitrisonante,
                                             pinicultura,
                                             multiloquentia,
                                             igniparente,
                                             etc.
§165 LE PREPOSITIONES E CONJUNCTIONES include un numero de compositos que non pote servir como modellos pro formationes additional. Parlante strictemente il ha nulle construction de parolas con respecto a ulle de iste duo partes del discurso. Formas como depost, proque, malgrado, etc. es unic e non suggere ulle altere formationes parallel.

Il pote esser notate totevia que un numero de prepositiones corresponde a conjunctiones parallel in que. Exemplos es:

§ 165. PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS include a number of compounds which cannot serve as models for additional formations. Strictly speaking there is no word building in regard to either of these parts of speech. Forms like depost, proque, malgrado, etc. are unique and suggest no further parallel formations.
 

It may be noted however that a number of prepositions correspond to parallel conjunctions in que. Examples are:

                       Preposition                Conjunction
                       -------------------------  ---------------------------------------
                       ante     'before (prep)':  durante que  'before (conj)'
                       depost   'afterwards'   :  depost que   'since'
                       durante  'during'       :  durante que  'whilst'
                       malgrado 'despite'      :  malgrado que 'although'
                       per      'through'      :  perque       'because'
                       post     'after'        :  post que     'since, because'
                       pro      'for'          :  proque       'because'
                       salvo    'save'         :  salvo que    'save, but that'
                       secundo  'along'        :  secundo que  'according as'
                       ultra    'beyond'       :  ultra que    'aside from the fact that'
                       viste    'in view of'   :  viste que    'considering that'
Quando parolas como considerante, excepte, etc. es usate con functiones prepositional, le addition del conjunction que los convertera in locutiones conjunctive.

Considerante su etate, ille es multo vivace.
 

Considerante que ille es multo vetule, ille es bastante vivace.

When words like considerante, excepte, etc. are used with prepositional functions, the addition of the conjunction que will make them into conjunctional locutions.

Considerante su etate, ille es multo vivace
'Considering his age, he is quite lively'

Considerante que ille es multo vetule, ille es bastante vivace
'Considering that he is very old, he is rather lively'

§166 Locutiones prepositional e conjunctive es multo numerose e nove locutiones pote esser formate tanto liberemente como in anglese. § 166. Prepositional and conjunctional locutions arc very numerous and new ones can be formed as freely as in English.
                    con le exception de    'except, with the exception of'
                    per medio de           'through, by means of'
                    pro le beneficio de    'for the benefit of, in behalf of"
                    in respecto a          'in regard to, with reference to'
                    supponite que          'supposing that'
§167 Nota: Como dictate per requirimentos practic, il es possibile usar duo prepositiones insimul secundo le modello del anglese {in between} que differe del prepositiones composite anglese como {into} e {upon} mermente per le orthographia separate del duo elementos. § 167. Note: As dictated by practical requirements, it is possible to use two prepositions together after the pattern of English 'in between' which differs from compound prepositions like 'into' and 'upon' merely through the separate spelling of the two elements.
Io va a in le foresta: Io entra al foresta.      'I go into (to in) the forest'
Io va in le foresta: Io ambula in le foresta.    ('I walk in the forest' or 'walk into the forest')
Illo cadeva a inter le libros.                   'It fell down (to a place) in between the books'
Illa te accompaniara usque a trans le montanias. 'She will accompany you to (a place) beyond the 
                                                 mountains'
===========
Appendice 1
===========
---------------------
Verbos de duple thema
---------------------

Il pote esser importante notar que le termino "secunde thema irregular de verbos" como usate in iste grammatica non debe esser permittite evocar le spectro de irregularitates verbal characteristic del majoritate de linguas ethnic. In Interlingua le secunde thema irregular de verbos ha nihil a facer con le question de conjugation. Illo es un thema que occurre in certe substantivos e adjectivos derivate e los impedi de assumer formas innaturalmente distorte, como per exemplo scribitura in loco de scriptura (de scriber), corrumpitive in loco de corruptive (de corrumper), incidition in loco de incision (de incider), etc. De plus le typo "regular", scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., non necessarimente debe esser considerate "erronee" sed pote esser usate quandocunque il pare stilisticamente possibile o preferibile.

In construction active de vocabulos, il essera discoperite que le secunde thema irregular causa pauc difficultates e sovente simplifica le processo de derivation. Derivar, per exemplo, le forma "regular" collidition de collider non es facile pro alicuno qui parla como su lingua native anglese o qualcunque altere lingua del civilisation occidental, durante que le uso del thema "irregular" collis- con un resultante collision pare natural e assi multo facile.

Finalmente, on non debe ignorar le facto que construction active de vocabulos es in practica rarmente un question de derivar un parola de un altere in un vacuo, pro si dicer, sed plus tosto un question de adaptar un nove formation in un patrono de plures que jam es familiar. Pro illustrar: Quicunque require un adjectivo a accompaniar, que nos dice, le verbo extraher [-trah-/-tract-], va spontaneemente cunear extractive, non como le resultato laboriose de attachar -ive al verbo sed plus tosto proque extractive se conforma al patrono de vocabulos jam cognoscite, como extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. Le nove formation extractive non es - parlante psychologicamente e pedagogicamente - derivate de un 'extraher' isolate. Illo es formate de 'extraher' in le presentia de extraction, extractor, etc.

Omne verbo cuje secunde thema non resulta del prime per le simple addition de -at o -it es accompaniate in le Interlingua-English Dictionary per un plen indication de su duo themas. Un exposition descriptive del secunde thema irregular de verbos pote totevia esser trovate utile pro certe propositos e es essayate in le paragraphos sequente. Nota que infinitivos que non appare in le Interlingua-English Dictionary es listate infra in parentheses.

Nulle verbo derivate pote unquam haber un secunde thema irregular. Verbos como fusionar (de fusion), degradar (de grado), normalisar (de normal), falsificar (de false), blanchir (de blanc), etc. es sempre regular.

Verbos composite, sia formate con prefixos (componer, imprimer, interrogar, etc.), sia essente le formas composite de vocabulos integre (calefacer, benedicer, etc.), seque le patrono del correspondente verbos simple in respecto a regularitate o irregularitate de lor secunde themas. Nota que le vocal de thema de verbos composite con prefixos differe occasionalmente del correspondente vocal del verbo simple, un phenomeno que non es a conservar in composition active. Tal verbos composite sovente recupera o se approcha al vocal original - le vocal del verbo simple - in lor secunde themas irregular.

===========
Appendice 1
===========
-----------------
Double-Stem Verbs
-----------------

It may be important to note that the term "irregular second stem of verbs" as used in this grammar must not be allowed to conjure up the specter of verbal irregularities characteristic of most ethnic languages. In Interlingua the irregular second stem of verbs has nothing to do with matters of conjugation. It is a stem which occurs in certain derived nouns and adjectives and prevents these from assuming unnaturally distorted forms, as for instance scribitura instead of scriptura (from scriber), corrumpitive instead of corruptive (from corrumper), incidition instead of incision (from incider), etc. Furthermore the "regular" type, scribitura, corrumpitive, incidition, etc., need not be considered "wrong" but may be used whenever it seems stylistically possible or preferable.

In active word building it will be found that the irregular second stem occasions few difficulties but often simplifies the process of derivation. To derive, for instance, the "regular" form collidition from collider is not easy for anyone speaking as his native language English or any of the other languages of Western Civilization, while the use of the "irregular" stem collis- with a resulting collision seems natural and hence easy.

Finally one must not overlook the fact that active word building is in practice rarely a matter of deriving one word from another in a vacuum, so to speak, but rather a matter of fitting a new formation into a pattern of several familiar ones. To illustrate: Anyone needing an adjective to go with let us say extraher 'to extract,' will spontaneously coin extractive, not as the laborious result of attaching -ire to the verb but rather because extractive fits into the pattern of words already known, like extraher, extractor, extraction, extrahente. The new formation extractive is not – psychologically and pedagogically speaking – derived from an isolated extraher. It is fashioned from extraher in the presence of extraction, extractor, etc.
 

Every verb whose second stem does not result from the first by the simple addition of -at- or -it- is accompanied in the Interlinqua - English Dictionary by a full statement of its two stems. A descriptive survey of the irregular second stem of verbs may still be found useful for certain purposes and is attempted in the following paragraphs. Note that infinitives which do not appear in the Interlinqua - English Dictionary are listed below within parentheses.

No derived verb can ever have an irregular second stem. Verbs like fusionar (from fusion), degrader (from grado), normalisar (from normal), falsificar (from false), blanchir (from blanc), etc. are always regular.

Compound verbs - whether formed with prefixes (componer, imprimer, interrogar, etc.) or the compounding forms of full-fledged words (calefacer, benedicer, etc.) follow the pattern of the corresponding simple verbs in regard to regularity or irregularity of their second stems. Note that the stem vowel of verbs compounded with prefixes differs occasionally from the corresponding vowel of the simple verb, a phenomenon not to be preserved in active compounding. Such compounded verbs often recover or approach the original vowel - the vowel of the simple verb - in their irregular second stem.

                                        a->i      a->i     a->a
                                        -------   ------   --------
                                        ager      ag-      act-
                                        rediger   redig-   redact-
                                        -------   ------   --------
                                        a->i      a->i     a->e
                                        -------   ------   --------
                                        facer     fac-     fact-
                                        conficer  confic-  confect-
                                        -------   ------   --------
                                        e->i      e->i     e->e
                                        -------   ------   --------
                                        leger     leg-     lect-
                                        colliger  collig-  collect-
Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ar ha un secunde thema irregular in solo tres casos exceptional: Verbs whose infinitive ends in -ar have an irregular second stem in only three exceptional instances.
                                        fricar  fric-  frict
                                        juvar   juv-   jut-
                                        secar   sec-   sect-
Verbos cuje infinitivos termina in -ir ha un secunde thema irregular in le casos exceptional sequente: Verbs whose infinitives end in -ir have an irregular second stem in the following exceptional instances:
                                        (aborir)  abor-   abort-
                                        aperir    aper-   apert-
                                        coperir   coper-  copert-
                                        experir   exper-  expert-
                                        haurir    haur-   haust-
                                        metir     met-    mens-
                                        morir     mor-    mort-
                                        patir     pat-    pass-
                                        salir     sal-    salt-
                                        sancir    sanc-   sanct-
                                        sarcir    sarc-   sart-
                                        sentir    sent-   sens-
                                        venir     ven-    vent-
Omne altere verbos con secunde themas irregular ha infinitivos que termina in -er. Iste constatation non pote esser revertite. Non omne verbos que termina in -er ha secunde themas irregular. Sed cf. §148.

Verbos con infinitivos in -er que ha un secunde thema irregular pote esser gruppate como seque:

1. Quando le prime thema termina in -c, -l, -n, -p, -r, -u, -x, le secunde thema normalmente es formate per le addition de -t. Exemplos:

All other verbs with irregular second stems have infinitives ending in -er. This statement cannot be reversed. Not all verbs ending in -er have irregular second stems. But cf. § 148.
 

Verbs with infinitives in -er which have an irregular second stem can be grouped as follows:
 

1. When the first stem ends in c, l, n, p, r, u, x, the second stem is normally formed by the addition of t. Examples:

                                        docer       doc-     doct- 
                                        ducer       duc-     duct-
                                        (consuler)  consul-  consult- 
                                        tener       ten-     tent- 
                                        caper       cap-     capt- 
                                        raper       rap-     rapt- 
                                        parer       par-     part- 
                                        offerer     offer-   offert-
                                        (serer)     ser-     sert-
                                        -luer       -lu-     -lut-
                                        tribuer     tribu-   tribut-
                                        (tuer)      tu-      tut-
                                        texer       tex-     text-
2. Quando le prime thema termina in -sc, iste desinentia es reducite ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema in le exemplos sequente: 2. When the first stem ends in sc, this ending is reduced before the t added to form the second stem in the following examples:
                                        crescer    cresc-    cret-
                                        miscer     misc-     mixt-
                                        (noscer)   nosc-     not-
                                        cognoscer  cognosc-  cognit-
                                        pascer     pasc-     past-
                                        quiescer   quiesc-   quiet-
3. Per le addition de -t pro formar le secunde thema, le sono (e orthographia) concludente del prime thema es normalmente afficite como seque: -b deveni -p; -g e -h deveni -c; -m deveni -mp; -qu deveni -cu; -v deveni -u. Exemplos: 3. Through the addition of t to form the second stem, the concluding sound (and spelling) of the first stem is normally affected as follows: b becomes p; g and h become c; m becomes mp; qu becomes cu; v becomes u. Examples:
                                        scriber   scrib- script-
                                        sorber    sorb-  sorpt-
                                        ager      ag-    act-
                                        reger     reg-   rect-
                                        traher    trah-  tract-
                                        veher     veh-   vect-
                                        emer      em-    empt-
                                        sumer     sum-   sumpt-
                                        (loquer)  loqu-  locut-
                                        sequer    sequ-  secut-
                                        solver    solv-  solut-
                                        volver    volv-  volut-
4. In le casos sequente, le -r final del prime thema deveni un -s ante le -t que es addite pro formar le secunde thema: 4. In the following instances the final r of the first stem becomes an s before the t added to form the second stem:
                                          gerer   ger-   gest-
                                          haurir  haur-  haust-
                                          querer  quer-  quest-
                                          torrer  torr-  tost-
                                          urer    ur-    ust-
5. Quando le prime thema termina in -d o -t (etiam -tt), le secunde thema es normalmente formate per cambiar iste consonantes a -s o -ss. Similarmente -ct es cambiate a -x. Exemplos: 5. When the first stem ends in d or t (also tt), the second stem is normally formed by changing these consonants to s or ss. Examples:
                                          (ceder)   ced-    cess-
                                          seder     sed-    sess-
                                          cader     cad-    cas-
                                          vider     vid-    vis-
                                          -luder    -lud-   -lus-
                                          scander   scand-  scans-
                                          prender   prend-  prens-
                                          tender    tend-   tens-
                                          (uter)    ut-     us-
                                          verter    vert-   vers-    
                                          mitter    mitt-   miss-    
                                          flecter   flect-  flex-
                                          (necter)  nect-   nex-
6. In le casos sequente, le secunde thema es formate per le addition de -s al prime thema. 6. In the following instances the second stem is formed by the addition of s to the first stem.
                                          (celler)  cell-    cels-
                                          censer    cens-    cens-
                                          currer    curr-    curs-
                                          figer     fig-     fix-
                                          -herer    -her-    -hes-
                                          laber     lab-     laps-
                                          merger    merg-    mers-
                                          mulger    mulg-    muls-
                                          (peller)  pell-    puls-
                                          sparger   sparg-   spars-
                                          torquer   torqu-   tors-
                                          -veller   -vell- - vuls-
7. Le verbos sequente que pertine a uno o altere del categorias precedente es in plus characterisate per le suppression de -m e -n in le secunde thema: 7. The following verbs which belong in one or another of the preceding categories are further characterized by the suppression of m and n in the second stem:
                                   contemner  contemn-  contempt-
                                   finger     fing-     fict-
                                   finder     find-     fiss-
                                   franger    frang-    fract-
                                   funder     fund-     fus-
                                   (panger)   pang-     pact-
                                   pinger     ping-     pict-
                                   rumper     rump-     rupt-
                                   scinder    scind-    sciss-
                                   stringer   string-   strict-
                                   tanger     tang-     tact-
                                   tunder     tund-     tus-
                                   vincer     vinc-     vict-
                                   (siner)    sin-      sit-
8. Varie irregularitates non coperite in le categorias precedente appare in le verbos sequente: 8. Various irregularities not covered in the preceding categories appear in the following verbs:
                                   compler       comple-    complet-
                                   deler         dele-      delet-
                                   mover         mov-       mot-
                                   vover         vov-       vot-
                                   cerner        cern-      -cret-
                                   coler         col-       cult-
                                   (sterner)     stern-     strat-
                                   distinguer    distingu-  distinct-
                                   extinguer     extingu-   extinct-
                                   (instinguer)  instingu-  instinct-
                                   struer        stru-      struct-
                                   -ferer        -fer-      -lat-
                                   offerer       offer-     offert-, oblat-
                                   fluer         flu-       fluct-, flux-
                                   fruer         fru-       fruct-, fruit-
                                   indulger      indulg-    indult-
                                   (linquer)     linqu-     lict-
                                   poner         pon-       posit-, post-
                                   premer        prem-      press-
                                   prender       prend-     prens-, pris-
                                   surger        surg-      surrect-
                                   tender        tend-      tens-, tent-
                                   (terer)       ter-       trit-
                                   torquer       torqu-     tort-, tors-
                                   (tuer)        tu-        tut-, tuit-
                                   verter        vert-      vers-, -ors-
                                   vider         vid-       vis-, vist-
                                   volver        volv-      volut-, volt-

INDICE ALPHABETIC
a accento accordo accusativo adjectivo • adjectivos demonstrative e pronomines • adjectivos possessive • adverbio
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AFFIXOS affixos a-..anti- • apo-..ecto- • electro-..homo- hydro-..-imento • -in..medie- • meta-..-oscopo • -ose..vice-
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
alphabeto • anglese, tractos distinctive • Anglese-Interlingua, lista de vocabulos • apposition • articulo
cambio orthographic • caso subjective • comparation • composition • conditional • conjunctiones
construction de vocabulos • datas • dativo • de • declination • derivation
desinentias • diphthongos • duple consonantes • duration de sono • esser • expressiones • facer • femina, feminin •
   forma familiar de adresse • formas de caso
formas irregular • genere grammatic • genere natural • genitivo • grammatica minime • haber
hora del die • imperativo • infinitivo • Interlingua-English Dictionary • intonation • majusculas • masculo, masculin • neutre
numerales • nominativo • nomines proprie • ordine de parolas • orthographia
partes del discurso • particula interrogative • particulas grammatic • participio passate • participio presente • passivo •
   plural • possessivo • prefixos
prepositiones • principios • principios general • pronomines • pronomines personal • pronomines personal indefinite
pronomines reflexive • pronomines relative • pronunciation • punctuation • sequentia de tempores • signos diacritic •
   subjecto grammatic • subjunctivo
substantivation • substantivo • suffixos • superlativo • superlativo absolute • syllabation
syntaxe • tabulas e expositiones • tempore futur • tempore passate • tempore passate perfecte • tempore presente • tempores
tempores composite • terminationes • textos exemplar • variante collateral de interlingua
verbo • verbos auxiliar • verbos de duple thema • vocabulos foranee • vocabulos hospite

a:
  usate pro exprimer
  functiones dative §26, §76
  usate con infinitivo §84

accento:
  nulle accentos usate §1
  vide etiam SIGNOS DIACRITIC
  regulas §10-
  in tempore futur §107

accordo:
  nulle accordo del adjectivos §32
  in appositivos §30
  in pronomines personal
  de tertie persona §58, §61

accusativo:
  vide §71

adjectivo: §31-42
  possessive §64-
  demonstrative §78-
  participial §93-97
  postverbal §97
  numeral §118-127
  usate como pronomine
    o substantivo §38-41
    etiam §64, §78
  comparation §34-38
  position §33
  nulle inflexion o accordo §32
  nomines proprie
    con functiones adjectival  §29
  substantivos usate
    como adjectivos in anglese  §28
  derivatos ab adjectivos §45-47, 
    §140-144
  derivation de adjectivos §139, 
    §142
  etiam §152, §154
  e vide COMPOSITION

adjectivos demonstrative e
   pronomines §78-79

adjectivos possessive 
  §64, §65
  presentation tabular §54

adverbio §43-53
  primari §44, §47
  derivate §45-47
  numerales adverbial §130
  expressiones adverbial §48
  position §52-
  comparation §50
  vide etiam PARTICULAS 
  GRAMMATIC

affixos:
  vide etiam COMPOSITION
  DERIVATION, CONSTRUCTION DE
  VOCABULOS, TERMINATIONES
  GENERE NATURAL, PREFIXOS, 
    SUFFIXOS
  Lista de affixos e elementos 
  similar de composition 
    (tractamento principal es in 
    cursiva):
  a- §158, §140
  -abile §152-, §145-147
  ad- §157
  -ada §138, §152, §154, §137, 
       §145-147
  aero- §161
  -age §7, §138, §152, §154, §15, 
       §137,145-147
  -al §139
  -alia §138, §137
  -amento §152, §154, §145-147
  amphi- §158
  -an §139, §138
  -ana §138, §158
  -ano §138, §139
  -anta §118
  ante- §157
  -ante §93, §152-, §41, §141,
        §145-147
  anti- §157
  -antia §93, §152, §154, §141, 
         §145-147

  apo- §158
  -ar (adj) §139
  -ar (v) §140, §154
  archi- §161
  -ari §139, §138
  -aria §138
  -ario §138, §139
  -astra §138, §137
  -astro §138, §137
  -ala §138, §137
  -ale §95,139,152-,149-
  -ation §152, §154, §145, §149
  -ative §152, §153, §149
  -ato §138
  -ator §152, §149
  -atori §152-, §149
  -ateria §152, §149
  -atrice §152
  -atura §152,154,149
  auto- §157
  bi- §128
  cata- §158
  centi- §128
  circum- §157, §158
  co- §157
  con- §157,158
  contra- §157
  deca- §128
  deci- §128
  di- §128
  dia- §158
  dis- §157
  dodeca- §128
  ecto- §158
  electro- §161
  en- §158, §157
  -ena §129
  endo- §158
  -ente §93, §152-, §41, §141, 
        §145-147
  -entia §93, §152, §154, §141, 
         §145-147
  ento- §158
  epi- §158
  equi- §161
  -er §139
  -era §138
  -eria §138, §152, §154, §10,
        §137, §145-147; 
  -ero §138, §137, §139
  -esc §139, §137
  -ese §138-, §41, §137
  -esime §125, §10
  -essa §138, §141, §137, §152
  -eto §138
  -etta §138, §137; 
  -ette §142, §137; 
  -etto §138, §137; 
  ex- §157
  exo- §158
  extra- §157, §158
  extro- §157
  gran- §157
  hecto- §128
  hemi- §128
  hepta- §128
  hetero- §161
  hexa- §128
  homeo- §161
  homo- §161
  hydro- §161
  hyper- §158
  hypo- §158
  -ia (non-accentuate) §138, §141, 
                       §152; 
  -ia (accentuate super -i) §138, 
      §141, §10; 
  -ial §139
  -ian §139, §138
  -iana §138
  -iano §138, §139
  -iardo §118
  -ibile §150, §152-, §145-147
  -ic §10, §139, §138
  -ica §10, §138
  -icida §161
  -icidio §161
  -ico §10, §138
  -icole §164
  -iente §93, §152-, §41, §141, 
         §145-147; 
  -ientia §93, §152, §154, §141, 
          §145-147; 
  -ier §139
  -iera §138, §137
  -iero §138, §137, §139
  -ifere §139, §10
  -ific §10, §139, §140
  -ificar §140, §137
  -iforme §164
  -il §138, §41
  -ilingue §164
  -illion §118
  -iloque §164
  -imento §152, §154, §145-147; 
  -in §139
  in- §157, §140, §158
  -ina §138-
  -ino §139
  inter- §157; 
  intra- §157; 
  intro- §157
  -ion §152,154,139,145,148-; 
  -iose §139
  -ipare §164
  -ipede §164
  -isar §140, §15, §138
  -ismo §138, §141, §140
  iso- §161
  -isone §164
  -issime §36, §10, §137, §142; 
  -issimo §47, §10, §137
  -ista §138-, §141-, §140
  -ila §138
  -itate §141
  -ite (subst) §138
  -ite (adj) §95, §152-, §148-; 
  -ition §152, §154,145, §149; 
  -itis §138
  -itive §152, §149
  -itor §152, §149
  -itori §152-, §149
  -itorio §152, §149
  -itrice §152
  -itude §141
  -itura §152, §154, §149
  -ive §152-, §145, §148-; 
  -ivome §164
  kilo- §128
  macro- §161
  medie- §126
  -manta §45, §130
  meta- §158
  micro- §161
  milli- §128
  mis- §157, §158
  mono- §128
  multi- §128
  myria- §128
  neo- §161
  non- §157
  -o (adv) §47, §130
  octa- §128
  -ographia §161
  -ographo §161
  -oide §138-
  -ologia §161
  -ologo §161,10
  -omana §161
  -omana §161
  -omania §161
  -omano §161
  -ometro §161
  omni- §161
  -ophila §161, 
  -ophile §161
  -ophilia §161; 
  -ophilo §161, 
  -ophoba §161; 
  -ophobe §161; 
  -ophobia §161; 
  -ophobo §161
  -or §152, §145, §148-, 
  -ori §152-, §145, §148-, 
  -orio §152, §145, §148
  -oscopia §161, 
  -oscopic §161; 
  -oscopio §161, 
  -oscopo §161
  -ose §139
  -osis §138, §139
  -otic §139, §138
  paleo- §161
  pan- §161
  para- §158
  penta- §128
  per- §157
  peri- §158
  photo- §161
  pluri- §128
  poly- §128
  post- §157
  pre- §157
  pro- §157
  proto- §161
  pseudo- §161
  quadri- §128
  quasi- §161
  radio- §161
  re- §157
  retro- §157
  -rice §152
  semi- §128
  sesqui- §128
  sub- §157, §158
  super- §157, §158
  syn- §158
  tele- §161
  tetra- §128
  trans- §157, §158
  tri- §128
  ultra- §157, §158
  uni- §128
  -ura §152,154,145,148-
  vice- §157
alphabeto: §1

anglese, tractos distinctive:
  vocales final obscurate §3; 
  substantivos usate como 
    adjectivos §28
  composition per juxtaposition 
    §159 
  omission del pronomine relative 
    §76
  gerundio §83
  'to' ante infinitivo §84
  accusativo con infinitivo §90
  formas de tempores progressive 
    §80, §94

anglese-interlingua, lista de 
  vocabulos:
  Section: 'Appendice 2' 

apposition: §30 

articulo: §17-21
  in uso pronominal §21
  definite §17, §18,  §21
  indefinite §19- §21

articulo definite §17-,  §21
  in uso pronominal  §21

articulo indefinite §19- §21
  in uso pronominal  §21

cambio orthographic:
  in derivation §137
  in formationes plural  §25

caso subjective:
  de pronomines personal §54-61, 
                         §63; 
  de pronomines relative §76

comparation:
  de adjectivos §34-38
  de adverbios §50
  formas irregular §37

composition §155-162
  per prefixos §156-158
  per formas compositori §159-162; 
  con numerales multiplicative 
    §128; 
  in conjunction con derivation 
    §163-
    vide etiam §140

conditional §107-
  vide etiam §103

conjugation:
  vide VERBO
  nulle inflexion personal §98
  tabula de conjugation §115

conjunctiones §165
  expressiones conjunctional §166
  punctuation in propositiones
    conjunctional §16
    vide etiam PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC

construction de vocabulos §135-166
  vide etiam DERIVATION

datas §132

dativo:
  exprimite per preposition  
    §26, §76
  vide etiam §71

de:
  usate pro exprimer
  functiones genitive  §26, §76
  usate con infinitivo §84, §89

declination:
  nulle formas de caso del 
    substantivos  §26; 
  nulle formas de caso de adjectivos 
    §32; 
  formas de caso de pronomines 
    §54, §62-

derivation §135-154
  ab substantivos §138-140
  ab adjectivos §45-47,140-144
  ab verbos §145-154
  de substantivos §138, §141
    etiam §152, §154
  de adjectivos §139, §142
    etiam §152, §154
  de adverbios §45-47
  de verbos §140, §144
    e vide COMPOSITION

desinentias:
  vice TERMINATIONES 

diphthongos §5

duple consonantes §6
  elimination in orthographia 
  collateral
    §15a

duration de sono §12

esser:
  passivo auxiliar §112-
  optional formas irregular
    §101, §104

expressiones:
  adverbial §48; 
  prepositional e conjunctional §166

facer:
  'to cause (to do)' e
    'to cause (to be done)' §70, §88

femina, feminin:
  vide GENERE NATURAL

forma familiar de adresse §57 

formas de caso:
  vide DECLINATION

formas irregular:
  de plurales in 'vocabulos hospite'
    §25
  de adverbios derivate §47, §49
  de comparation §37
  de themas de verbo §146, §148-, 
    §152 Section: 'Appendice §1'

genere grammatic:
  nulle genere grammatic in 
  Interlingua
     §23
    sed vide GENERE NATURAL

genere natural:
  in uso pronominal de articulos  
    §21, 
  in substantivos §24
  in appositivos §30, 
  vide etiam PRONOMINES PERSONAL 
  e ADJECTIVOS DEMONSTRATIVE, 
  substituto pro genere in 
  possessivos de tertie persona §65
  
genitivo:
  exprimite per preposition §26, §76
  de pronomine relative §76

grammatica minime:
  Section: 'Introduction: Principios
    general'

haber:
  functiones auxiliar §105-
  presente irregular optional §101

hora del die §133

imperativo §110-
  infinitivo usate como imperativo 
    §91

infinitivo §81-92
  terminationes §82
  uso de prepositiones con 
    infinitivo §84-89
  position in relation a pronomine 
    §69
  in questiones §92
  pro themas general, 
    vide VERBO

Interlingua-EngIish Dictionary:
  relation al Grammatica de 
  Interlingua, Section: 'Prefacio al 
  secunde edition'

intonation §12

majusculas:
  uso de majusculas §14

masculo, masculin:
  vide GENERE NATURAL

neutre:
  vide GENERE NATURAL

numerales §118-133
  adverbial §130
  cardinal §118-124
  ordinal §l25
  collective §129
  decimal §123
  fractional §126
  multiplicative §127
  compositos multiplicative §128

nominativo:
 vide CASO SUBJECTIVE

nomines proprie:
  uso de majusculas in §14; 
  con functiones adjectival  §29

ordine de parolas:
  position de adjectivo §33
  position de adverbio §52-
  position de pronomines 
    §69-71, §73, §88
  in questiones §116

orthographia §1-9
  collateral §15
  cambios in derivation §137
partes del discurso §17-133
  vide SUBSTANTIVO, ADJECTIVO, etc.

particula interrogative §116
  sequite per infinitivo §92

particulas grammatic §134

participio passate §95-97
  position in relation a pronomine 
    §69

participio presente §93-
  position in relation a pronomines 
    §69

passivo §112-114
  exprimite in constructiones 
    reflexive §68
  infinitivo passive §88

plural:
  de substantivos  §25,  §29
  de adjectivos usate como
    pronomines o substantivos §39
  de pronomines §61
  plural optional de tempore 
    presente de 'esser' §101

possessivo:
  vide GENITIVO
 
prefixos §155-158
  etiam §161a, §164
  vide AFFIXOS pro lista 
    complete

prepositiones §165-167
  usate pro exprimer functiones
  de caso  §26, §76
  post infinitivos §84-86, §89
  expressiones prepositional §166
  duple prepositiones §167
  vide etiam PARTICULAS GRAMMATIC

principios:
  determinar le grammatica minime:
  'lntroduction'

principios general:
  Section: 'Introduction'

pronomines §54-79
  vide ADJECTIVOS DEMONSTRATIVE, 
  PRONOMINES PERSONAL, etc.
  position in relation a verbo §53
  adjectivos usate como pronomines 
    §38-, 
    etiam §64, §78

pronomines personal §54-63, §69-73
  presentation tabular §54
  genere de tertie persona e accordo 
    §58, §61
  indefinite §60
  definite §61
  formas de caso §63
  position §69-71, §73
  omission de §59

pronomines personal indefinite 
  §61 

pronomines reflexive:
  formas de §66
  uso §67-
  position §69-71, §73

pronomines relative §74-77
  indefmite  §21
  punctuation in propositiones 
    relative §16

pronunciation §1-12

punctuation §16, §52

question §116
  uso de infinitivo in §92

sequentia de tempores §117

signos diacritic:
  non usate in vocabulos de 
    lnterlingua §1
  in "vocabulos hospite" §9

subjecto grammatic §59

subjunctivo:
  non exprimite §80
  forma exceptional 'sia': §111

substantivation:
  de adjectivos §38-41
  de demonstrativos §78 
  de numerales fractional 
    §126 
  de numerales ordinal §125 
  de infinitivo §83

substantivo  §22-30
  vide etiam NOMINES PROPRIE; 
  adjectivos usate como substantivos 
    §38-41
  substantivos anglese con functiones 
    adjectival §28
  derivatos ab substantivos §138-140
  derivation de substantivos §138-141, 
    etiam §152, §154
  e vide COMPOSITION

suffixos: 
  postsubstantival §138-140; 
  postadjectival §141-142, 
    etiam §45
  postverbal §145-154
  vide etiam §161b, §164
    e AFFIXOS pro lista complete

superlativo:
 vide COMPARATION
  e SUPERLATIVO ABSOLUTE 

superlativo absolute §36 

syllabation §13

syntaxe:
  Section: 'lntroduction'

tabulas e expositiones:
  de pronunciation §4
  comparation de adjectivos §37
  adjectivos non substantivate 
    in -o/-a §41
  pronomines personal §54, §68
  adjectivos possessive §54
  formas de tempore passive §112
  conjugation §115
  numerales §116
  formas compositori numeral §128
  particulas grammatic §134
  suffixos §138-154, §161b, §164
  prefixos §157-158, §161a

tempore futur §107

tampere passate §102-104
  optional forma irregular de 
    'esser' §104 

tempore passate perfecte §105
 
tempore presente §99-101
  optional formas irregular §101 

tempore presente perfecte 
  §105

tempores:
  vide TEMPORE PRESENTE, 
    TEMPORE PASSATE, etc.

tempores composite:
  vide TEMPORE PRESENTE PERFECTE, 
  TEMPORE PASSATE PERFECTE, TEMPORE 
    FUTUR, CONDITIONAL
  position de pronomine in tempores 
    composite §70

terminationes:
  de substantivos  §22
  de adjectivos §31, §136, §164
  de adverbios §47
  de demonstrativos §78
  de verbos §81, §146
  foranee §136
  in orthographia collateral §15h
  in derivation §136
  que exprime genere natural §39-41, 
    §58, §78 

textos exemplar: 
  Section: 'Appendice 3'

variante collateral de lnterlingua: 
  orthographia §15
  formas special §57, §79, §116, 
    §134
  adjectivos participial §97
  verbos in -ere §148
  Section: Textos exemplar: "Le
    administration de recercas 
    scientific"

verbo §80-117
  vide themas specific, 
  tempores, modos, etc, 
  auxiliar §101, §104-, §108, §112-
  duple thema §146-150, etiam §152; 
  derivation ab verbos §145-154, etiam §83
  derivation de verbos §140, §144, 
    e vide COMPOSITION.

verbos auxiliar:
  in tempores passate composite §105
  in futuro e conditional §108
  in le passivo §112

verbos de duple thema §148 

vocabulos foranee §9

vocabulos hospite §9
  in variante collateral §15
  plural  §25

Altere material grammatic:
Grammatica de Interlingua per Alexander Gode e Hugh Blair

In interlingua, traduction de Selahattin Kayalar

Grammatica de interlingua 2006-01-13, traducite per Selahattin Kayalar 2005. "Iste traduction es multo indebitate a Piet Cleij (Paises Basse), Bent Andersen (Danmark), Ferenc Jeszensky (Hungaria), Stanley Mulaik (SUA - Statos Unite de America). Illes ha generosemente date lor tempore a examinar e ameliorar le texto." - Selahattin Kayalar, Pasadena, SUA. Augusto 2005. http://www.interlingua.com/grammatica

Grammatica de Interlingua. http://www.interlingua.com/e-libros-ig . 2006-01-14 10:15 Bibliotheca electronic in interlingua » identifica o registra te pro poter inviar commentarios

In hungaro
Grammatica de Interlingua de Gode & Blair in hungaro

In italiano
Grammatica de Interlingua in italiano

In portugese
Breve gramática de Interlíngua
Grammatica de Interlingua in portugese.

In francese
Grammaire de l'interlingua

In anglese
A grammar of Interlingua. Alexander Gode & Hugh Blair. IALA 1951. Un sito australian

In svedese
Minikurs - Curso minime Svenska Sällskapet för Interlingua - Societate Svedese pro Interlingua. Uttal - Pronunciation / Kort grammatik - Breve grammatica / Ordbildning / Construction de parolas / Textprov - Textos de proba

In finnese
INTERLINGUA. 2000-luvun kansainvälinen kieli. Esittely. Lyhyt kielioppi. (INTERLINGUA - Lingua international del 21e seculo. Presentation. Breve grammatica. In finnese). Ingvar Stenström. Cargabile ex rete como un file ZIP-comprimite


Construction de parolas

Le THEORIA DE CONSTRUCTION DE PAROLAS. Section "Introduction" del Interlingua-English Dictionary, pp. xlv-xlix.

Formation de parolas in Interlingua per Ingvar Stenström


Un colpo de vista historic al developpamento de Interlingua

IALA - International Auxiliary Language Association. General Report 1945

Selahattin Kayalar
le traductor distinguite de iste grammatica

Selahattin Kayalar, un ingeniero e Ph.D. turc qui labora al JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), Pasadena, California, ha sensationalmente traducte le "Interlingua - a grammar of the international language" per Alexander Gode e Hugh E. Blair, le grammatica principal de interlingua - a interlingua - 54 annos post le publication de iste libro in anglese ...!
Abona iste libro magnific! Vide http://www.interlingua.fi/ordikaya.htm

Alicun commentarios

Le equipa de traductores ha facite un obra meticulose. Le numero de errores es minime. Totevia, le texto original in anglese probabilemente ancora contine errores proque illo es prendite ex version scannate per alicun interlinguistas ante multe annos, e - como sapite - le OCR (Optimal Character Recorder) non functiona ben. Informa me de errores trovate, per favor!

§ 157. In version interlinguan: re- (in verbos) 2. = de novo, altere vice; p.ex. nove -> renovar;
In version anglese: re- (in verbs) 2. 'again' e.g. nove 'new' > renovar 'to renew';
Io suppone que "de novo" es correcte, sed etiam de nove es permittite, nonne? In IED: "nove adj new (1. not existing before; 2. not yet used or word); de nove again, anew, afresh." In iste grammatica: §48 Numerose EXPRESSIONES ADVERBIAL es unitates crystallisate e appare in iste forma in le Dictionario: in summa, de nove, (§ 48. Numerous ADVERBIAL PHRASES are crystallized units and appear as such in the Dictionary. de nove 'again, anew'

In Tabula de pronomines personal, §54 io ha corrigite Possesive -> Possessive.

§48 Le traductores ha corrigite le phrase
"A tres horas io es citate con mi parve soror a presso del dentista" ('At three o'clock I have an appointment with my little sister at the dentist') a
"A tres horas io ha un incontro con mi parve soror a presso del dentista".
An io e mi parve soror va incontrar nos duo a presso del dentista - o an nos va incontrar insimul le dentista ...?

Allan Kiviaho


Actualisate le 2008-11-05

Administrator de iste sito:
--------------------------
Allan Kiviaho
SILY - Suomen Interlinguayhdistys ry.
FILF - Föreningen för Interlingua i Finland
AFIL - Association Finlandese pro Interlingua