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It also makes the language more difficult to pronounce for me, being a native speaker of Dutch. My language does have [s] and [S] too, but [S] is not very frequent, and it may even be a combinatory variant of [s] when followed by [j], instead of a separate phoneme. So assimilations, which in Portuguese do not occur between these sounds, are difficult to avoid for me, unless I practice examples many times.


When preparing to write my article Geen handdruk: neerbuigend? (provisional English title, if ever translated: ‘No handshake: condescending?’) I decided I wanted it stored in a religion folder and referred to from a religion menu of my website.

However, one of the points I made in the article is that some Muslims not wanting to shake a woman’s hand, is not so much a matter of religion, but rather of sexual morals. For that reason, I also refer to the article from the menu Politiek en samenleving, (‘Politics and society’) which is about (mainly Dutch) politics, legal matters, and how people live together in society.

History of the religion menu

Portuguese puxar, although contrary in meaning, shares its origin with English push: via Anglo-French and Old-French (pousser/poulser), it too can be traced back to Latin pulsare.
Source: Oxford Concise English Dictionary

Puxar, but don't push

So I wrote some silly little C programs to do some testing to find out what really happens.

Fixing a hole where the rain gets in

Videos also have the disadvantage that I have to make transcriptions of what is said in order to quote bits from it. I don’t like that, it’s an unnecessary waste of valuable time. And I can’t listen to music at the same time.

Promissory obligations to each other (a)

Yet another fado related example: Maria Ana Bobone announcing the song she is going to sing, ‘Senhora do monte’. She says: “De Frederico de Brito, Senhora do monte”. The name of that famous poet and composer, including the preposition before it, has 2 syllables instead of 8, with a maximum of 4 consecutive consonants: [fr1D1rikwDbritw].


But what has brought you here? Just because you fell asleep I am stupid enough to tell you all this, so now I’d like to know a little more about you.’ Ladethe started. He didn’t like direct inquiries about himself, although he really wouldn’t know what he had to hide. After a while he said: ‘Perhaps emptiness attracts me. Or I like quiet places. I don’t know.’

So he went – Chapter 1

Any sexual behaviour is permitted, that does not violate the principle of mutual consideration between those involved. Involved are the ones that make love to each other, but also any other regular sexual partners of any of them. As an example, this implies that married people are allowed to have sexual relations outside of their marriage, but only if this is possible without hurting the feelings of the marriage partner.


This worked well, and has worked well for years, because after reinventing this method, I realised it was what was there already on previous versions of my VPS.

Fixing a hole where the rain gets in

Single-member districts

In every district, only the candidate who won more votes than any of the other candidates, wins the seat in parliament allocated to that district. In practice, the consequence of such a system is that there are only two, at most three political parties. The results of elections are clear and simple and the formation of a government supported by parliament is easy.

But the disadvantage of single-member districts is that small parties have no real chance. The voice of minorities will not be heard.

A more effective democracy

This was the rocky tunnel, with sharp, stinging ridges, and very dark. At first, he saw nothing, later, with eyes adapted to the darkness, some shadows, then nothing again. The rocks were wet and slippery, and he wasn’t sure whether it was blood or water or a mixture dripping down his knees. Soon he began to think he must be near the end, but every time he thought that he also remembered the previous time, and the memories seemed longer and longer ago. The ever lower ceiling made it undoable to walk, and creeping was all that remained.

So he went – Chapter 3

This diagram shows the relative tongue positions for the nine non-nasalised vowels (left) and the five nasalised vowels (right). Below is the same diagram in X-SAMPA transcription, to show how the ASCII symbols used throughout the document correspond to the real phonetic transcription symbols.

Vowel diagram
Vowel diagram

The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal

In fact, a bank enters into a financial relationship with its clients. There are claims (assets) and obligations (liabilities) between the bank and its clients. The bank however does not interfere in claims or obligations between its clients. Such bilateral claims and obligations between bank clients do also exist, but the bank does not have anything to do with them.

Promissory obligations to each other (c)

Paying is done by transferring part of such a promise (i.e., the balance in a transaction account held by a member of the public) to another account holder.

A CMI cannot replace that.

Buying a house with a promise

The government didn’t borrow this money just to have it sitting in the treasury. It borrowed it with a purpose: some programme or project or similar. In our example, the money was for an infrastructure project, so it is intended for paying design engineers and contracting companies for eventually building that bridge or road or tunnel or whatever it is.

Central bank funding government?

Colours: Neutral Weird No preference Reload screen