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Because Portuguese is known for losing consonants (cf. cielo, céu; buena, boa; sonar, soar; lleno, cheio) I assumed the original form must have been donde, and Portuguese lost the initial d.

But it is not so: Portuguese onde comes from Latin unde! That word did not mean ‘where’, but ‘whence’.

Spanish de donde, from where, twice added de?

But this is not so! (but sometimes it is!)
In this situation, the inaudible vowel rears its beautiful head, and turns the final s of "esses" into [z]. This is because the phoneme is between vowels now, and this rule, as you might recall, extends over word boundaries. So the correct pronunciation is: [es1z1SforsuS] ©

In quick speech, the vowels will become very short, and might eventually disappear again, but they leave their traces by influencing the consonants: [eszSforsS] or with a devoiced (but still lax!) [z]: [essSforsS]. Not surprising that this language tends to be difficult to understand for the uninitiated listener, expecting a "normal" European language.

Word-initial es

Some people switch from one style to the other, others - most - use one style consistently. This seems to be a matter of personal preference. But even those who are very consistent sometimes switch: on four Cristina Branco records I found only one occurrence of a ‘double’ lingual r ©, which is again uvular © in a different recording of the same song. Text: Da água que não correu (Of the water that didn’t flow).
Dulce Pontes © sometimes does it too, and so did Amália Rodrigues: lingual © here, but uvular © in the same word ‘rua’ elsewhere. Also in roda ©.

The uvular r is often more fricative in Brazil than in Portugal; for more details see note 23, item 5.

Uvular and lingual 'double' r

Of course I will not answer the questions on behalf of the central banks they were posed to, because I have no connection with any banks whatsoever, central or otherwise.

I reply only from the desire to see things as clearly as possible myself, and where I succeed in achieving such clarity, I feel strongly like sharing it with anyone willing to read.

Give up commensurable consideration

In my view such a system combines the advantages of the three existing arrangements:

  1. The majority decides, but minorities are also heard, like in a system of proportional representation.

  2. The formation of a governing coalition is easy and swift. The government can carry through its policies vigorously, effectively and clearly. Politicians can do what they promised before the elections.

A more effective democracy

So the month of July is Xullo in Galician, and even the name Jesus is not protected from this high degree of exiness, as these pictures of Rua Bo Xesús, taken in Lugo show:

Note that ‘street’ is ‘rua’ here in Galiza, as in Portuguese, and cognate with French ‘rue’, ¡y no se llama ‘calle’ como en Español!

Puxar, but don't push

Why is it that the area on the back of credit cards and debit cards, where you are supposed to put your signature, is so small?

Why so small?

People are inclined to value short term profits above long term losses. One rather dumps poison somewhere if that seems cheaper for the moment, even if later it takes millions to clean the soil. One rather wastes energy now, if it takes a little trouble to save it, without having solutions for the energy supply of future generations. Governments have the task to translate long term interests into short term ones.


where we read:

E, depois que amanheceu, não houvemos vista dele nem dos outros navios;
Ao domingo seguinte, em amanhecendo, houvemos vista da Ilha do Sal, e logo daí a uma hora houvemos vista de três navios, os quais fomos demandar; [...]

Eu houve? Doesn't exist!

She was the same woman. He was the same man. They had met before, he remembered clearly, and he knew she did too. It must have been years ago, he wanted to know how many, but she wouldn’t tell him, even pretended many times she didn’t remember. She had lived an orderly life, with the opportunity to count. That is, Ladethe assumed that, as he always assumed that problems he had, others had not.

So he went – Chapter 4

  • Cardinal Vowels:
    Daniel Jones: samples recorded in 1956
  • Cardinal vowels by John Wells, Susan Ramsaran and Peter Ladefoged.

    Links to linguistic and phonetic glossaries and explanations

    A language with so many consonants and so few vowels could not be beautiful anymore, and Portuguese is. Perhaps in an attempt to keep the balance, it also developed long sequences of vowels and diphthongs. There are triphthongs, tetraphthongs, pentaphthongs, hexaphthongs, heptaphthongs, and even octophthongs.


    While writing the page How to tune a guitar I noticed a strange mistake in my English vocabulary: I always thought that the two-pronged metal device to tune musical instruments was called ‘pitchfork’ in English.

    Tuning fork, pitchfork?

    When he came to, he could see. There was light, not sure where it came from, enough to distinguish vaguely the shapes of the rocks. He looked up, it was lightest there, though that couldn’t convince him that the source of the light was up there. He was in doubt whether the shapes he saw could be branches and leaves, which would imply he was really out of the tunnel, but when he looked again they were clearly rocks.

    So he went – Chapter 3

    I see no answers to these question on MPE sites or in videos. Maybe I didn’t read and watch enough of them. So far my conclusion on this point is: too unclear, no unambiguous definitions, no clear implementation plan, the proposed new system is not viable.

    Promissory obligations to each other (c)

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