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Only now they realized they had been talking well into the night. They kneeled, each in a chair by a high window, and gazed dully into the morning shimmer. They could scarcely keep their eyes open any longer, and nothing, not even the hares, moved that might have kept their eyeballs rolling, and soon they tumbled to sleep, lolling as if shot.

So he went – Chapter 2

Community survival

Humans once lived in small communities in Garden of Eden-like environments, probably in Africa or not too far from it. For picking fruit and eating it, no trade or money is needed. Neither does hunting prey and eating it together with all members of the community.

The economy was based on everybody contributing to their ability, and benefiting to their needs.


Trade money

A financial claim of the public on a bank (ii) by definition is money.

A financial claim of a bank on anyone (i) by definition is NOT money.

Give up commensurable consideration

By combining information from various sources I compiled the following table of words with a different o-vowel in singular and plural, and of other with have the close vowel in both.

Note that some words are in both lists, due to conflicting information from different sources: almoços, acordo, esposo, or mention of variation in one source (Willis): desporto, estofo. I haven't yet checked (June 2004) what the Academia has to say about these.

Regular alternations of half-open sounds

It turns out that the full name of Brega is Marsa el-Brega. In Arabic transliteration this is marsā al-burayqa(h), or  مرسى البريقة  in real Arabic script.

Vernacular Arabic

So how can Burayqa have become Brega?

This is not as strange as it seems.

Brega cannot be Arabic!

The Arabic language and the script in which it is written have fascinated me for as long as I am aware of their existence. As a result, several of my website pages contain references to the Arabic language or example words in Arabic script.

Below you’ll find a list of those pages.

Pages where Arabic is mentioned

Money requires trust

Banks are known to always fulfil their promises, banks are generally trusted. That is why their promises to the public are money: money is claims by the public on banks. In other words: money is promises to pay, promises by banks to the public.

Buying a house with a promise

It seems somewhat surprising at first, but when you think about it for some time, it makes sense and it is quite smart!

I recommend to read David Ardron’s full explanation, I cannot quote it all. Do include the part starting:
Most if not all employees wages or salaries in MPE will be paid out of the employers profit line ( earned profit ) , [...]

Much clearer now!


As I said, after reading David Ardron’s explanations I have a much clearer picture of how MPE and the CMI can function in practice. I really think we should give it a try, so it gets a chance of showing how well it works in day-to-day life.

Of course, implementing the CMI requires software. As my humble contribution, I already set up a first attempt to write a module that may be of some use as part of the CMI infrastructure.

Much clearer now!

So here we have this idea again, that money should represent value, or even all value. I noticed that before. And I think that this is not a good interpretation of the concept of money. Money has a value of its own: either the (actual or symbolic) metal value in coins, or the value represented by claims of the public on banks.

Money is the banks’ promise to pay the public. In that sense money is promissory obligation. The banks’ obligation, not that of the public (households and firms).

Money can be exchanged for goods and vice versa. But money is not the goods, does not represent them, does not symbolise them. In other words, money is not “tokenization of value”.

Promissory obligations to each other (d)

We understand many things from the only comprehensive answer – including why federal governments of every republic across the world are forced to over-spend, [...]

They are not forced to overspend, but they do it anyway. Why? Because they want to be popular so they will be re-elected. Spending government money is appreciated by people and companies that benefit from it. Governments hesitate to raise taxes accordingly, although that is the logical consequence of spending more tax money.

Interest back into circulation

But Arabic is different. The phonotactics of Arabic have two basic rules:

Because Brega starts with two consonants, it simply cannot be an Arabic name!

But it is!

Nevertheless, the fact remains that Brega exists and is often called Brega. How is that possible?

Brega cannot be Arabic!

I didn’t think, and still don’t think that is even grammatically possible. The words can only refer back to “claims or obligations between its [meaning: the bank’s] clients


Measured times (both based on the reversed search I’ll be discussing shortly): 1,15 seconds of actual CPU time for the second method, versus 1,28 for the first. Not worth the optimisation effort, especially considering that the script will run very infrequently.

The numbers tell the tale.

Grep -v? No, -L!

A language with so many consonants and so few vowels could not be beautiful anymore, and Portuguese is. Perhaps in an attempt to keep the balance, it also developed long sequences of vowels and diphthongs. There are triphthongs, tetraphthongs, pentaphthongs, hexaphthongs, heptaphthongs, and even octophthongs.


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